Precision Medicine (PM) is an emerging approach that appears with the impression of changing the existing paradigm of medical practice. Recent advances in technological innovations and genetics, and the growing availability of health data have set a new pace of the research and imposes a set of new requirements on different stakeholders. To date, some studies are available that discuss about different aspects of PM. Nevertheless, a holistic representation of those aspects deemed to confer the technological perspective, in relation to applications and challenges, is mostly ignored. In this context, this paper surveys advances in PM from informatics viewpoint and reviews the enabling tools and techniques in a categorized manner. In addition, the study discusses how other technological paradigms including big data, artificial intelligence, and internet of things can be exploited to advance the potentials of PM. Furthermore, the paper provides some guidelines for future research for seamless implementation and wide-scale deployment of PM based on identified open issues and associated challenges. To this end, the paper proposes an integrated holistic framework for PM motivating informatics researchers to design their relevant research works in an appropriate context.
Its impact is drastic and real: Youtube's AIdriven recommendation system would present sports videos for days if one happens to watch a live baseball game on the platform ; email writing becomes much faster with machine learning (ML) based auto-completion ; many businesses have adopted natural language processing based chatbots as part of their customer services . AI has also greatly advanced human capabilities in complex decision-making processes ranging from determining how to allocate security resources to protect airports  to games such as poker  and Go . All such tangible and stunning progress suggests that an "AI summer" is happening. As some put it, "AI is the new electricity" . Meanwhile, in the past decade, an emerging theme in the AI research community is the so-called "AI for social good" (AI4SG): researchers aim at developing AI methods and tools to address problems at the societal level and improve the wellbeing of the society.
The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA) is an immune-inspired algorithm, developed for the purpose of anomaly detection. The algorithm performs multi-sensor data fusion and correlation which results in a 'context aware' detection system. Previous applications of the DCA have included the detection of potentially malicious port scanning activity, where it has produced high rates of true positives and low rates of false positives. In this work we aim to compare the performance of the DCA and of a Self-Organizing Map (SOM) when applied to the detection of SYN port scans, through experimental analysis. A SOM is an ideal candidate for comparison as it shares similarities with the DCA in terms of the data fusion method employed. It is shown that the results of the two systems are comparable, and both produce false positives for the same processes. This shows that the DCA can produce anomaly detection results to the same standard as an established technique.
It is crucial to provide compatible treatment schemes for a disease according to various symptoms at different stages. However, most classification methods might be ineffective in accurately classifying a disease that holds the characteristics of multiple treatment stages, various symptoms, and multi-pathogenesis. Moreover, there are limited exchanges and cooperative actions in disease diagnoses and treatments between different departments and hospitals. Thus, when new diseases occur with atypical symptoms, inexperienced doctors might have difficulty in identifying them promptly and accurately. Therefore, to maximize the utilization of the advanced medical technology of developed hospitals and the rich medical knowledge of experienced doctors, a Disease Diagnosis and Treatment Recommendation System (DDTRS) is proposed in this paper. First, to effectively identify disease symptoms more accurately, a Density-Peaked Clustering Analysis (DPCA) algorithm is introduced for disease-symptom clustering. In addition, association analyses on Disease-Diagnosis (D-D) rules and Disease-Treatment (D-T) rules are conducted by the Apriori algorithm separately. The appropriate diagnosis and treatment schemes are recommended for patients and inexperienced doctors, even if they are in a limited therapeutic environment. Moreover, to reach the goals of high performance and low latency response, we implement a parallel solution for DDTRS using the Apache Spark cloud platform. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed DDTRS realizes disease-symptom clustering effectively and derives disease treatment recommendations intelligently and accurately.
In the modern era of big data, data analyses play an important role in decision-making in healthcare, information technology, and government agencies. The growing availability of large-scale datasets and ease of data analysis, while beneficial to society, has created a severe crisis of reproducibility in science. In 2011, Bayer HealthCare reviewed 67 in-house projects and found that they could replicate fewer than 25 percent, and found that over two-thirds of the projects had major inconsistencies [oSEM19]. One major reason is that random noise in the data can often be mistaken for interesting signals, which does not lead to valid and reproducible results. This problem is particularly relevant when testing multiple hypotheses, when there is an increased chance of false discoveries based on noise in the data. For example, an analyst may conduct 250 hypothesis tests and find that 11 are significant at the 5% level. This may be exciting to the researcher who publishes a paper based on these findings, but elementary statistics suggests that (in expectation) 12.5 of those tests should be significant at that level purely by chance, even if the null hypotheses were all true. To avoid such problems, statisticians have developed tools for controlling overall error rates when performing multiple hypothesis tests. In hypothesis testing problems, the null hypothesis of no interesting scientific discovery (e.g., a drug has no effect), is tested against the alternative hypothesis of a particular scientific theory being true (e.g., a drug