Data streams occur widely in various real world applications. The research on streaming data mainly focuses on the data management, query evaluation and optimization on these data, however the work on reasoning procedures for streaming knowledge bases on both the assertional and terminological levels is very limited. Typically reasoning services on large knowledge bases are very expensive, and need to be applied continuously when the data is received as a stream. Hence new techniques for optimizing this continuous process is needed for developing efficient reasoners on streaming data. In this paper, we survey the related research on reasoning on expressive logics that can be applied to this setting, and point to further research directions in this area.
We define a modular multi-concept extension of the lexicographic closure semantics for defeasible description logics with typicality. The idea is that of distributing the defeasible properties of concepts into different modules, according to their subject, and of defining a notion of preference for each module based on the lexicographic closure semantics. The preferential semantics of the knowledge base can then be defined as a combination of the preferences of the single modules. The range of possibilities, from fine grained to coarse grained modules, provides a spectrum of alternative semantics.
Axiom pinpointing refers to the task of finding the specific axioms in an ontology which are responsible for a consequence to follow. This task has been studied, under different names, in many research areas, leading to a reformulation and reinvention of techniques. In this work, we present a general overview to axiom pinpointing, providing the basic notions, different approaches for solving it, and some variations and applications which have been considered in the literature. This should serve as a starting point for researchers interested in related problems, with an ample bibliography for delving deeper into the details.
Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) are a family of logics which allow the representation of (and the reasoning with) structured knowledge affected by vagueness. Although most of the not very expressive crisp DLs, such as ALC, enjoy the Finite Model Property (FMP), this is not the case once we move into the fuzzy case. In this paper we show that if we allow arbitrary knowledge bases, then the fuzzy DLs ALC under Lukasiewicz and Product fuzzy logics do not verify the FMP even if we restrict to witnessed models; in other words, finite satisfiability and witnessed satisfiability are different for arbitrary knowledge bases. The aim of this paper is to point out the failure of FMP because it affects several algorithms published in the literature for reasoning under fuzzy ALC.
In the last two decades, modal and description logics have been applied to numerous areas of computer science, including knowledge representation, formal verification, database theory, distributed computing and, more recently, semantic web and ontologies. For this reason, the problem of automated reasoning in modal and description logics has been thoroughly investigated. In particular, many approaches have been proposed for efficiently handling the satisfiability of the core normal modal logic K(m), and of its notational variant, the description logic ALC. Although simple in structure, K(m)/ALC is computationally very hard to reason on, its satisfiability being PSPACE-complete. In this paper we start exploring the idea of performing automated reasoning tasks in modal and description logics by encoding them into SAT, so that to be handled by state-of-the-art SAT tools; as with most previous approaches, we begin our investigation from the satisfiability in K(m). We propose an efficient encoding, and we test it on an extensive set of benchmarks, comparing the approach with the main state-of-the-art tools available. Although the encoding is necessarily worst-case exponential, from our experiments we notice that, in practice, this approach can handle most or all the problems which are at the reach of the other approaches, with performances which are comparable with, or even better than, those of the current state-of-the-art tools.