We live in a connected world and generate a vast amount of connected data. Social networks, financial transaction systems, biological networks, transportation systems, and a telecommunication nexus are all examples. The paper citation network displayed in Figure 1 is another example of connected data. The nodes represent research papers, while the edges illustrate citations between papers, with the various colour indicative of a report's subject, with seven colours coding seven topics. Representing connected data is possible using a graph data structure regularly used in Computer Science.
Edge features contain important information about graphs. However, current state-of-the-art neural network models designed for graph learning do not consider incorporating edge features, especially multi-dimensional edge features. In this paper, we propose an attention mechanism which combines both node features and edge features. Guided by the edge features, the attention mechanism on a pair of graph nodes will not only depend on node contents, but also ajust automatically with respect to the properties of the edge connecting these two nodes. Moreover, the edge features are adjusted by the attention function and fed to the next layer, which means our edge features are adaptive across network layers. As a result, our proposed adaptive edge features guided graph attention model can consolidate a rich source of graph information that current state-of-the-art graph learning methods cannot. We apply our proposed model to graph node classification, and experimental results on three citaion network datasets and a biological network dataset show that out method outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods, testifying to the discriminative capability of edge features and the effectiveness of our adaptive edge features guided attention model. Additional ablation experimental study further shows that both the edge features and adaptiveness components contribute to our model.
Over three decades, the Internet has grown from a small network of computers used by research scientists to communicate and exchange data to a technology that has penetrated almost every aspect of our day-to-day lives. Today, it is hard to imagine a life without online access for business, shopping, and socialising. A technology that has connected humanity at a scale never before possible has also amplified some of our worst qualities. Online hate speech spreads virally across the globe with short- and long-term consequences for individuals and societies. These consequences are often difficult to measure and predict. Online social media websites and mobile apps have inadvertently become the platform for the spread and proliferation of hate speech.
The main approaches for node classification in graphs are information propagation and the association of the class of the node with external information. State of the art methods merge these approaches through Graph Convolutional Networks. We here use the association of topological features of the nodes with their class to predict this class. Moreover, combining topological information with information propagation improves classification accuracy on the standard CiteSeer and Cora paper classification task. Topological features and information propagation produce results almost as good as text-based classification, without no textual or content information. We propose to represent the topology and information propagation through a GCN with the neighboring training node classification as an input and the current node classification as output. Such a formalism outperforms state of the art methods.
Graph convolutional network (GCN) is generalization of convolutional neural network (CNN) to work with arbitrarily structured graphs. A binary adjacency matrix is commonly used in training a GCN. Recently, the attention mechanism allows the network to learn a dynamic and adaptive aggregation of the neighborhood. We propose a new GCN model on the graphs where edges are characterized in multiple views or precisely in terms of multiple relationships. For instance, in chemical graph theory, compound structures are often represented by the hydrogen-depleted molecular graph where nodes correspond to atoms and edges correspond to chemical bonds. Multiple attributes can be important to characterize chemical bonds, such as atom pair (the types of atoms that a bond connects), aromaticity, and whether a bond is in a ring. The different attributes lead to different graph representations for the same molecule. There is growing interests in both chemistry and machine learning fields to directly learn molecular properties of compounds from the molecular graph, instead of from fingerprints predefined by chemists. The proposed GCN model, which we call edge attention-based multi-relational GCN (EAGCN), jointly learns attention weights and node features in graph convolution. For each bond attribute, a real-valued attention matrix is used to replace the binary adjacency matrix. By designing a dictionary for the edge attention, and forming the attention matrix of each molecule by looking up the dictionary, the EAGCN exploits correspondence between bonds in different molecules. The prediction of compound properties is based on the aggregated node features, which is independent of the varying molecule (graph) size. We demonstrate the efficacy of the EAGCN on multiple chemical datasets: Tox21, HIV, Freesolv, and Lipophilicity, and interpret the resultant attention weights.