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Machine Learning Characterization of Cancer Patients-Derived Extracellular Vesicles using Vibrational Spectroscopies

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The early detection of cancer is a challenging problem in medicine. The blood sera of cancer patients are enriched with heterogeneous secretory lipid bound extracellular vesicles (EVs), which present a complex repertoire of information and biomarkers, representing their cell of origin, that are being currently studied in the field of liquid biopsy and cancer screening. Vibrational spectroscopies provide non-invasive approaches for the assessment of structural and biophysical properties in complex biological samples. In this study, multiple Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed on the EVs extracted from the blood sera of 9 patients consisting of four different cancer subtypes (colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer and pancreatic cancer) and five healthy patients (controls). FTIR(Fourier Transform Infrared) spectroscopy measurements were performed as a complementary approach to Raman analysis, on two of the four cancer subtypes. The AdaBoost Random Forest Classifier, Decision Trees, and Support Vector Machines (SVM) distinguished the baseline corrected Raman spectra of cancer EVs from those of healthy controls (18 spectra) with a classification accuracy of greater than 90% when reduced to a spectral frequency range of 1800 to 1940 inverse cm, and subjected to a 0.5 training/testing split. FTIR classification accuracy on 14 spectra showed an 80% classification accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that basic machine learning algorithms are powerful tools to distinguish the complex vibrational spectra of cancer patient EVs from those of healthy patients. These experimental methods hold promise as valid and efficient liquid biopsy for machine intelligence-assisted early cancer screening.


A Novel Approach to the Diagnosis of Heart Disease using Machine Learning and Deep Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Currently, 33% of cases are misdiagnosed, and approximately half of myocardial infarctions occur in people who are not predicted to be at risk. The use of Artificial Intelligence could reduce the chance of error, leading to possible earlier diagnoses, which could be the difference between life and death for some. The objective of this project was to develop an application for assisted heart disease diagnosis using Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Neural Network (DNN) algorithms. The dataset was provided from the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, and the models were built based on various optimization and hyper parametrization techniques including a Grid Search algorithm. The application, running on Flask, and utilizing Bootstrap was developed using the DNN, as it performed higher than the Random Forest ML model with a total accuracy rate of 92%.


The Random Forest Algorithm – Towards Data Science

#artificialintelligence

Random Forest is a flexible, easy to use machine learning algorithm that produces, even without hyper-parameter tuning, a great result most of the time. It is also one of the most used algorithms, because it's simplicity and the fact that it can be used for both classification and regression tasks. In this post, you are going to learn, how the random forest algorithm works and several other important things about it.


Learn Mobile Price Prediction Through Four Classification Algorithms

#artificialintelligence

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon. Mobile phones come in all sorts of prices, features, specifications and all. Price estimation and prediction is an important part of consumer strategy. Deciding on the correct price of a product is very important for the market success of a product. A new product that has to be launched, must have the correct price so that consumers find it appropriate to buy the product.


How the random forest algorithm works in machine learning

#artificialintelligence

If you are not aware of the concepts of decision tree classifier, Please spend some time on the below articles, As you need to know how the Decision tree classifier works before you learning the working nature of the random forest algorithm. Given the training dataset with targets and features, the decision tree algorithm will come up with some set of rules. In decision tree algorithm calculating these nodes and forming the rules will happen using the information gain and gini index calculations. In random forest algorithm, Instead of using information gain or gini index for calculating the root node, the process of finding the root node and splitting the feature nodes will happen randomly.