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Notes on a New Philosophy of Empirical Science

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This book presents a methodology and philosophy of empirical science based on large scale lossless data compression. In this view a theory is scientific if it can be used to build a data compression program, and it is valuable if it can compress a standard benchmark database to a small size, taking into account the length of the compressor itself. This methodology therefore includes an Occam principle as well as a solution to the problem of demarcation. Because of the fundamental difficulty of lossless compression, this type of research must be empirical in nature: compression can only be achieved by discovering and characterizing empirical regularities in the data. Because of this, the philosophy provides a way to reformulate fields such as computer vision and computational linguistics as empirical sciences: the former by attempting to compress databases of natural images, the latter by attempting to compress large text databases. The book argues that the rigor and objectivity of the compression principle should set the stage for systematic progress in these fields. The argument is especially strong in the context of computer vision, which is plagued by chronic problems of evaluation. The book also considers the field of machine learning. Here the traditional approach requires that the models proposed to solve learning problems be extremely simple, in order to avoid overfitting. However, the world may contain intrinsically complex phenomena, which would require complex models to understand. The compression philosophy can justify complex models because of the large quantity of data being modeled (if the target database is 100 Gb, it is easy to justify a 10 Mb model). The complex models and abstractions learned on the basis of the raw data (images, language, etc) can then be reused to solve any specific learning problem, such as face recognition or machine translation.


A Gamut of Games

AI Magazine

In Shannon's time, it would have seemed Around this time, Arthur Samuel began work the capabilities of computational intelligence. By 1958, Alan Newell and Herb Simon the game world with the real world--the game had begun their investigations into chess, of life--where the rules often change, the which eventually led to fundamental results scope of the problem is almost limitless, and for AI and cognitive science (Newell, Shaw, and the participants interact in an infinite number Simon 1958). An impressive lineup to say the of ways. Games can be a microcosm of the real least! Indeed, one of the early goals of AI was to and chess programs could play at a build a program capable of defeating the level comparable to the human world champion. This These remarkable accomplishments are the challenge proved to be more difficult than was result of a better understanding of the anticipated; the AI literature is replete with problems being solved, major algorithmic optimistic predictions. It eventually took insights, and tremendous advances in hardware almost 50 years to complete the task--a technology. The work on computer remarkably short time when one considers the games has been one of the most successful and software and hardware advances needed to visible results of AI research. The results are truly of the progress in building a world-class amazing. Even though there is an exponential program for the game is given, along with a difference between the best case and the brief description of the strongest program. The histories are necessarily case (Plaat et al. 1996). Games reports the past successes where computers realizing the lineage of the ideas.


A 20-Year Community Roadmap for Artificial Intelligence Research in the US

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) have produced formidable technologies that are providing immense benefit to industry, government, and society. AI systems can now translate across multiple languages, identify objects in images and video, streamline manufacturing processes, and control cars. The deployment of AI systems has not only created a trillion-dollar industry that is projected to quadruple in three years, but has also exposed the need to make AI systems fair, explainable, trustworthy, and secure. Future AI systems will rightfully be expected to reason effectively about the world in which they (and people) operate, handling complex tasks and responsibilities effectively and ethically, engaging in meaningful communication, and improving their awareness through experience. Achieving the full potential of AI technologies poses research challenges that require a radical transformation of the AI research enterprise, facilitated by significant and sustained investment. These are the major recommendations of a recent community effort coordinated by the Computing Community Consortium and the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence to formulate a Roadmap for AI research and development over the next two decades.


GPT-3 Creative Fiction

#artificialintelligence

What if I told a story here, how would that story start?" Thus, the summarization prompt: "My second grader asked me what this passage means: …" When a given prompt isn't working and GPT-3 keeps pivoting into other modes of completion, that may mean that one hasn't constrained it enough by imitating a correct output, and one needs to go further; writing the first few words or sentence of the target output may be necessary.


Here's Everything New Coming to the Apple TV

TIME - Tech

Apple on Thursday announced a handful of updates coming to its Apple TV set-top box. The biggest change will be the introduction of a new TV app, which essentially functions as a TV guide for your numerous streaming apps. Here's a closer look at what Apple announced during a media event: Apple's new TV app is designed to surface content from various streaming apps, like HBO Go and Hulu, and house them in one easily browsable place. The "Up Next" section, for example, will act as a hub for content you've already started watching across all of these services. If you started a movie but didn't finish it, the "Up Next" tab will let you pick up where you left off.