Many and long were the conversations between Lord Byron and Shelley to which I was a devout and silent listener. During one of these, various philosophical doctrines were discussed, and among others the nature of the principle of life, and whether there was any probability of its ever being discovered and communicated. They talked of the experiments of Dr. Darwin (I speak not of what the doctor really did or said that he did, but, as more to my purpose, of what was then spoken of as having been done by him), who preserved a piece of vermicelli in a glass case till by some extraordinary means it began to move with a voluntary motion. Not thus, after all, would life be given. Perhaps a corpse would be reanimated; galvanism had given token of such things: perhaps the component parts of a creature might be manufactured, brought together, and endued with vital warmth (Butler 1998).
This paper discusses technology challenges and opportunities to embrace artificial intelligence (AI) era in the design of wireless networks. We aim to provide readers with motivation and general methodology for adoption of AI in the context of next-generation networks. First, we discuss the rise of network intelligence and then, we introduce a brief overview of AI with machine learning (ML) and their relationship to self-organization designs. Finally, we discuss design of intelligent agent and it's functions to enable knowledge-driven wireless networks with AI.
The application of "machine learning" and "artificial intelligence" has become popular within the last decade. Both terms are frequently used in science and media, sometimes interchangeably, sometimes with different meanings. In this work, we aim to clarify the relationship between these terms and, in particular, to specify the contribution of machine learning to artificial intelligence. We review relevant literature and present a conceptual framework which clarifies the role of machine learning to build (artificial) intelligent agents. Hence, we seek to provide more terminological clarity and a starting point for (interdisciplinary) discussions and future research.
The history of artificial intelligence (AI) began in antiquity, with myths, stories and rumors of artificial beings endowed with intelligence or consciousness by master craftsmen; as Pamela McCorduck writes, AI began with "an ancient wish to forge the gods." The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who attempted to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols. This work culminated in the invention of the programmable digital computer in the 1940s, a machine based on the abstract essence of mathematical reasoning. This device and the ideas behind it inspired a handful of scientists to begin seriously discussing the possibility of building an electronic brain. The Turing test was proposed by British mathematician Alan Turing in his 1950 paper Computing Machinery and Intelligence, which opens with the words: "I propose to consider the question, 'Can machines think?'" The term'Artificial Intelligence' was created at a conference held at Dartmouth College in 1956. Allen Newell, J. C. Shaw, and Herbert A. Simon pioneered the newly created artificial intelligence field with the Logic Theory Machine (1956), and the General Problem Solver in 1957. In 1958, John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky started the MIT Artificial Intelligence lab with 50,000. John McCarthy also created LISP in the summer of 1958, a programming language still important in artificial intelligence research. In 1973, in response to the criticism of James Lighthill and ongoing pressure from congress, the U.S. and British Governments stopped funding undirected research into artificial intelligence. Seven years later, a visionary initiative by the Japanese Government inspired governments and industry to provide AI with billions of dollars, but by the late 80s the investors became disillusioned and withdrew funding again. McCorduck (2004) writes "artificial intelligence in one form or another is an idea that has pervaded Western intellectual history, a dream in urgent need of being realized," expressed in humanity's myths, legends, stories, speculation and clockwork automatons. Mechanical men and artificial beings appear in Greek myths, such as the golden robots of Hephaestus and Pygmalion's Galatea. In the Middle Ages, there were rumors of secret mystical or alchemical means of placing mind into matter, such as J?bir ibn Hayy?n's Takwin, Paracelsus' homunculus and Rabbi Judah Loew's Golem. By the 19th century, ideas about artificial men and thinking machines were developed in fiction, as in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein or Karel?apek's
APIs, or application processing interfaces, are packages of code critical to AI functionality in products and software. They can add more value to AI capabilities with descriptions, and call outs. The future of AI is marked with a race against time, as man strives to make machines more intelligent than humans! What was a fascinating aspect of science fiction has now become the most powerful technology disruptive everyday processes in industries and businesses, and human touchpoints? With continuous breakthroughs in AI research, across domains and use cases, AI is being implemented by one company after another, at a breakneck speed. Thus, AI is based on several disciplines that contribute to intelligent systems – mathematics, biology, logic/philosophy, psychology, linguistic, computer science, and engineering. You need to have a certain level of expertise in math, probability, statistics, algebra, calculus, logic, and algorithms.