As humans we feel nothing more viscerally -- in the most literal sense -- than our health. That makes this year's gathering of the Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Interventions Society -- MICCAI 2017 -- in Quebec City, Canada, one of the best ways to understand how deep learning is improving the lives of people all around us. The conference brings together leading biomedical scientists, engineers and clinicians to talk about new technologies in medical imaging and computer-assisted intervention, providing an early look at trends poised to sweep through the $6.5 trillion healthcare industry. This will be the group's biggest conference yet, with 1,300 attendees. And deep learning -- which pairs vast quantities of data with sophisticated neural networks to give computers amazing new capabilities -- deserves a lot of the credit, organizers say.
Artificial intelligence has been applied in wildfire science and management since the 1990s, with early applications including neural networks and expert systems. Since then the field has rapidly progressed congruently with the wide adoption of machine learning (ML) in the environmental sciences. Here, we present a scoping review of ML in wildfire science and management. Our objective is to improve awareness of ML among wildfire scientists and managers, as well as illustrate the challenging range of problems in wildfire science available to data scientists. We first present an overview of popular ML approaches used in wildfire science to date, and then review their use in wildfire science within six problem domains: 1) fuels characterization, fire detection, and mapping; 2) fire weather and climate change; 3) fire occurrence, susceptibility, and risk; 4) fire behavior prediction; 5) fire effects; and 6) fire management. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of various ML approaches and identify opportunities for future advances in wildfire science and management within a data science context. We identified 298 relevant publications, where the most frequently used ML methods included random forests, MaxEnt, artificial neural networks, decision trees, support vector machines, and genetic algorithms. There exists opportunities to apply more current ML methods (e.g., deep learning and agent based learning) in wildfire science. However, despite the ability of ML models to learn on their own, expertise in wildfire science is necessary to ensure realistic modelling of fire processes across multiple scales, while the complexity of some ML methods requires sophisticated knowledge for their application. Finally, we stress that the wildfire research and management community plays an active role in providing relevant, high quality data for use by practitioners of ML methods.
An accurate model of patient-specific kidney graft survival distributions can help to improve shared-decision making in the treatment and care of patients. In this paper, we propose a deep learning method that directly models the survival function instead of estimating the hazard function to predict survival times for graft patients based on the principle of multi-task learning. By learning to jointly predict the time of the event, and its rank in the cox partial log likelihood framework, our deep learning approach outperforms, in terms of survival time prediction quality and concordance index, other common methods for survival analysis, including the Cox Proportional Hazards model and a network trained on the cox partial log-likelihood.