Machines use Google-type algorithms on biopsy images to help children get treatment faster. A study published in the open access journal JAMA Open Network today by scientists at the University of Virginia schools of Engineering and Medicine says machine learning algorithms applied to biopsy images can shorten the time for diagnosing and treating a gut disease that often causes permanent physical and cognitive damage in children from impoverished areas. In places where sanitation, potable water and food are scarce, there are high rates of children suffering from environmental enteric dysfunction, a disease that limits the gut's ability to absorb essential nutrients and can lead to stunted growth, impaired brain development and even death. The disease affects 20 percent of children under the age of 5 in low- and middle-income countries, such as Bangladesh, Zambia and Pakistan, but it also affects some children in rural Virginia. For Dr. Sana Syed, an assistant professor of pediatrics in the UVA School of Medicine, this project is an example of why she got into medicine.
Machine Learning (ML) is one of the most exciting and dynamic areas of modern research and application. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to the core concepts and tools of machine learning in a manner easily understood and intuitive to physicists. The review begins by covering fundamental concepts in ML and modern statistics such as the bias-variance tradeoff, overfitting, regularization, and generalization before moving on to more advanced topics in both supervised and unsupervised learning. Topics covered in the review include ensemble models, deep learning and neural networks, clustering and data visualization, energy-based models (including MaxEnt models and Restricted Boltzmann Machines), and variational methods. Throughout, we emphasize the many natural connections between ML and statistical physics. A notable aspect of the review is the use of Python notebooks to introduce modern ML/statistical packages to readers using physics-inspired datasets (the Ising Model and Monte-Carlo simulations of supersymmetric decays of proton-proton collisions). We conclude with an extended outlook discussing possible uses of machine learning for furthering our understanding of the physical world as well as open problems in ML where physicists maybe able to contribute. (Notebooks are available at https://physics.bu.edu/~pankajm/MLnotebooks.html )
Advertisements (ads) often contain strong affective content to capture viewer attention and convey an effective message to the audience. However, most computational affect recognition (AR) approaches examine ads via the text modality, and only limited work has been devoted to decoding ad emotions from audiovisual or user cues. This work (1) compiles an affective ad dataset capable of evoking coherent emotions across users; (2) explores the efficacy of content-centric convolutional neural network (CNN) features for AR vis-\~a-vis handcrafted audio-visual descriptors; (3) examines user-centric ad AR from Electroencephalogram (EEG) responses acquired during ad-viewing, and (4) demonstrates how better affect predictions facilitate effective computational advertising as determined by a study involving 18 users. Experiments reveal that (a) CNN features outperform audiovisual descriptors for content-centric AR; (b) EEG features are able to encode ad-induced emotions better than content-based features; (c) Multi-task learning performs best among a slew of classification algorithms to achieve optimal AR, and (d) Pursuant to (b), EEG features also enable optimized ad insertion onto streamed video, as compared to content-based or manual insertion techniques in terms of ad memorability and overall user experience.
The challenges of effective health risk communication are well known. This paper provides pointers to the health communication literature that discuss these problems. Tailoring printed information, visual displays, and interactive multimedia have been proposed in the health communication literature as promising approaches. On-line risk communication applications are increasing on the internet. However, potential effectiveness of applications using conventional computer technology is limited. We propose that use of artificial intelligence, building upon research in Intelligent Tutoring Systems, might be able to overcome these limitations.
Using algorithms partially modeled on the human brain, researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have enabled computers to predict the immediate future by examining a photograph. A program created at MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) essentially watched 2 million online videos and observed how different types of scenes typically progress: people walk across golf courses, waves crash on the shore, and so on. Now, when it sees a new still image, it can generate a short video clip (roughly 1.5 seconds long) showing its vision of the immediate future. "It's a system that tries to learn what are plausible videos -- what are plausible motions you might see," says Carl Vondrick, a graduate student at CSAIL and lead author on a related research paper to be presented this month at the Neural Information Processing Systems conference in Barcelona. The team aims to generate longer videos with more complex scenes in the future.