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A Two-Stage Weighting Framework for Multi-Source Domain Adaptation

Neural Information Processing Systems

Discriminative learning when training and test data belong to different distributions is a challenging and complex task. Often times we have very few or no labeled data from the test or target distribution but may have plenty of labeled data from multiple related sources with different distributions. The difference in distributions may be in both marginal and conditional probabilities. Most of the existing domain adaptation work focuses on the marginal probability distribution difference between the domains, assuming that the conditional probabilities are similar. However in many real world applications, conditional probability distribution differences are as commonplace as marginal probability differences. In this paper we propose a two-stage domain adaptation methodology which combines weighted data from multiple sources based on marginal probability differences (first stage) as well as conditional probability differences (second stage), with the target domain data. The weights for minimizing the marginal probability differences are estimated independently, while the weights for minimizing conditional probability differences are computed simultaneously by exploiting the potential interaction among multiple sources. We also provide a theoretical analysis on the generalization performance of the proposed multi-source domain adaptation formulation using the weighted Rademacher complexity measure. Empirical comparisons with existing state-of-the-art domain adaptation methods using three real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.


Incremental Adversarial Domain Adaptation for Continually Changing Environments

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Continuous appearance shifts such as changes in weather and lighting conditions can impact the performance of deployed machine learning models. While unsupervised domain adaptation aims to address this challenge, current approaches do not utilise the continuity of the occurring shifts. In particular, many robotics applications exhibit these conditions and thus facilitate the potential to incrementally adapt a learnt model over minor shifts which integrate to massive differences over time. Our work presents an adversarial approach for lifelong, incremental domain adaptation which benefits from unsupervised alignment to a series of intermediate domains which successively diverge from the labelled source domain. We empirically demonstrate that our incremental approach improves handling of large appearance changes, e.g. day to night, on a traversable-path segmentation task compared with a direct, single alignment step approach. Furthermore, by approximating the feature distribution for the source domain with a generative adversarial network, the deployment module can be rendered fully independent of retaining potentially large amounts of the related source training data for only a minor reduction in performance.


Easy Transfer Learning By Exploiting Intra-domain Structures

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Transfer learning aims at transferring knowledge from a well-labeled domain to a similar but different domain with limited or no labels. Unfortunately, existing learning-based methods often involve intensive model selection and hyperparameter tuning to obtain good results. Moreover, cross-validation is not possible for tuning hyperparameters since there are often no labels in the target domain. This would restrict wide applicability of transfer learning especially in computationally-constraint devices such as wearables. In this paper, we propose a practically Easy Transfer Learning (EasyTL) approach which requires no model selection and hyperparameter tuning, while achieving competitive performance. By exploiting intra-domain structures, EasyTL is able to learn both non-parametric transfer features and classifiers. Extensive experiments demonstrate that, compared to state-of-the-art traditional and deep methods, EasyTL satisfies the Occam's Razor principle: it is extremely easy to implement and use while achieving comparable or better performance in classification accuracy and much better computational efficiency. Additionally, it is shown that EasyTL can increase the performance of existing transfer feature learning methods.


Enlisting 3D Crop Models and GANs for More Data Efficient and Generalizable Fruit Detection

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Training real-world neural network models to achieve high performance and generalizability typically requires a substantial amount of labeled data, spanning a broad range of variation. This data-labeling process can be both labor and cost intensive. To achieve desirable predictive performance, a trained model is typically applied into a domain where the data distribution is similar to the training dataset. However, for many agricultural machine learning problems, training datasets are collected at a specific location, during a specific period in time of the growing season. Since agricultural systems exhibit substantial variability in terms of crop type, cultivar, management, seasonal growth dynamics, lighting condition, sensor type, etc, a model trained from one dataset often does not generalize well across domains. To enable more data efficient and generalizable neural network models in agriculture, we propose a method that generates photorealistic agricultural images from a synthetic 3D crop model domain into real world crop domains. The method uses a semantically constrained GAN (generative adversarial network) to preserve the fruit position and geometry. We observe that a baseline CycleGAN method generates visually realistic target domain images but does not preserve fruit position information while our method maintains fruit positions well. Image generation results in vineyard grape day and night images show the visual outputs of our network are much better compared to a baseline network. Incremental training experiments in vineyard grape detection tasks show that the images generated from our method can significantly speed the domain adaption process, increase performance for a given number of labeled images (i.e. data efficiency), and decrease labeling requirements.


Generalized Zero-Shot Domain Adaptation via Coupled Conditional Variational Autoencoders

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Domain adaptation approaches aim to exploit useful information from the source domain where supervised learning examples are easier to obtain to address a learning problem in the target domain where there is no or limited availability of such examples. In classification problems, domain adaptation has been studied under varying supervised, unsupervised and semi-supervised conditions. However, a common situation when the labelled samples are available for a subset of target domain classes has been overlooked. In this paper, we formulate this particular domain adaptation problem within a generalized zero-shot learning framework by treating the labelled source domain samples as semantic representations for zero-shot learning. For this particular problem, neither conventional domain adaptation approaches nor zero-shot learning algorithms directly apply. To address this generalized zero-shot domain adaptation problem, we present a novel Coupled Conditional Variational Autoencoder (CCVAE) which can generate synthetic target domain features for unseen classes from their source domain counterparts. Extensive experiments have been conducted on three domain adaptation datasets including a bespoke X-ray security checkpoint dataset to simulate a real-world application in aviation security. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach both against established benchmarks and in terms of real-world applicability.