Dynamic Boltzmann Machine (DyBM) has been shown highly efficient to predict time-series data. Gaussian DyBM is a DyBM that assumes the predicted data is generated by a Gaussian distribution whose first-order moment (mean) dynamically changes over time but its second-order moment (variance) is fixed. However, in many financial applications, the assumption is quite limiting in two aspects. First, even when the data follows a Gaussian distribution, its variance may change over time. Such variance is also related to important temporal economic indicators such as the market volatility. Second, financial time-series data often requires learning datasets generated by the generalized Gaussian distribution with an additional shape parameter that is important to approximate heavy-tailed distributions. Addressing those aspects, we show how to extend DyBM that results in significant performance improvement in predicting financial time-series data.
The article was written by Amber Zhou, a Financial Analyst at I Know First. Deep learning has become a buzzward in recent years. In fact, it has once gained much attention and excitements under the name neural networks early back in 1980's. However due to the lack of sufficient compute power and training examples, it gradually experienced a depression in the following decade. As we are entering the Era of Big Data in light of the explosion of computer power, deep learning has recently seen a revival.
The whirl of reinforcement learning started with the advent of AlphaGo by DeepMind, the AI system built to play the game Go. Since then, various companies have invested a great deal of time, energy, and research, and today reinforcement learning is one of the hot topics within Deep Learning. That said, most businesses are struggling to find use cases for reinforcement learning or ways to encompass it within their business logic. So far, it's been studied only in risk-free, observed, environments that are easy to simulate, which means that industries like finance, health, insurance, tech-consultancies are reluctant to risk their own money to explore its applications. What's more, the aspect of "risk factoring" within reinforcement learning puts a high strain on systems.
Financial markets have been one of the earliest adopters of machine learning (ML). People have been using ML to spot patterns in the markets since 1980s. Even though ML has had enormous successes in predicting the market outcomes in the past, the recent advances in deep learning haven't helped financial market predictions much. While deep learning and other ML techniques have finally made it possible for Alexa, Google Assistant and Google Photos to work, there hasn't been much progress when it comes to stock markets.
A restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) is a generative neural-network model with many novel applications such as collaborative filtering and acoustic modeling. An RBM lacks the capacity to retain memory, making it inappropriate for dynamic data modeling as in time-series analysis. In this paper we address this issue by proposing the p-RBM model, a generalization of the regular RBM model, capable of retaining memory of p past states. We further show how to train the p-RBM model using contrastive divergence and test our model on the problem of predicting the stock market direction considering 100 stocks of the NASDAQ-100 index. Obtained results show that the p-RBM offer promising prediction potential.