The goal of our research is to find patterns of EEG activity that will allow us to correctly identify seizures in living rats using machine learning techniques. Features are extracted from the EEG to characterize the signal over time. We perform model selection to reduce the set of features, as the goal is to have the algorithm running on a small personal device. The chosen features are used within a supervised classifier, based on randomized forests, in order to separate the different brain states. One of the challenges of this research is to detect all seizures, while preserving a low false positive rate, and low detection latency. We present results showing we can achieve this using data from three separate animals. The long-term goal of this research is to use this seizure detection method as part of a closed-loop adaptive neuro-stimulation device to reduce the incidence and duration of seizures.
In current clinical practice, electroencephalograms (EEG) are reviewed and analyzed by well-trained neurologists to provide supports for therapeutic decisions. The way of manual reviewing is labor-intensive and error prone. Automatic and accurate seizure/nonseizure classification methods are needed. One major problem is that the EEG signals for seizure state and nonseizure state exhibit considerable variations. In order to capture essential seizure features, this paper integrates an emerging deep learning model, the independently recurrent neural network (IndRNN), with a dense structure and an attention mechanism to exploit temporal and spatial discriminating features and overcome seizure variabilities. The dense structure is to ensure maximum information flow between layers. The attention mechanism is to capture spatial features. Evaluations are performed in cross-validation experiments over the noisy CHB-MIT data set. The obtained average sensitivity, specificity and precision of 88.80%, 88.60% and 88.69% are better than using the current state-of-the-art methods. In addition, we explore how the segment length affects the classification performance. Thirteen different segment lengths are assessed, showing that the classification performance varies over the segment lengths, and the maximal fluctuating margin is more than 4%. Thus, the segment length is an important factor influencing the classification performance.
Page, Adam (University of Maryland, Baltimore County) | Turner, J. T. (University of Maryland, Baltimore County) | Mohsenin, Tinoosh (University of Maryland, Baltimore County) | Oates, Tim (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
Personalized health monitoring is slowly becoming a reality due to advances in small, high-fidelity sensors, low-power processors, as well as energy harvesting techniques. The ability to efficiently and effectively process this data and extract useful information is of the utmost importance. In this paper, we aim at dealing with this challenge for the application of automated seizure detection. We explore the use of a variety of representations and machine learning algorithms to the particular task of seizure detection in high-resolution, multi-channel EEG data. In doing so, we explore the classification accuracy, computational complexity and memory requirements with a view toward understanding which approaches are most suitable. In particular, we show that layered learning approaches such as Deep Belief Networks excel along these dimensions.
Automatic epileptic seizure analysis is important because the differentiation of neural patterns among different patients can be used to classify people with specific types of epilepsy. This could enable more efficient management of the disease. Automatic seizure type classification using clinical electroencephalograms (EEGs) is challenging due to factors such as low signal to noise ratios, signal artefacts, high variance in the seizure semiology among individual epileptic patients, and limited clinical data constraints. To overcome these challenges, in this paper, we present a deep learning based framework which uses a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) with dense connections and learns highly robust features at different spatial and temporal resolutions of the EEG data spectrum for accurate cross-patient seizure type classification. We evaluate our framework for seizure type classification and seizure detection on the recently released TUH EEG Seizure Corpus, where our framework achieves overall weighted f 1 scores of up to 0.90 and 0.88, thereby setting new benchmarks on the dataset.
This study presents a novel, deep, fully convolutional architecture which is optimized for the task of EEG-based neonatal seizure detection. Architectures of different depths were designed and tested; varying network depth impacts convolutional receptive fields and the corresponding learned feature complexity. Two deep convolutional networks are compared with a shallow SVM-based neonatal seizure detector, which relies on the extraction of hand-crafted features. On a large clinical dataset, of over 800 hours of multichannel unedited EEG, containing 1389 seizure events, the deep 11-layer architecture significantly outperforms the shallower architectures, improving the AUC90 from 82.6% to 86.8%. Combining the end-to-end deep architecture with the feature-based shallow SVM further improves the AUC90 to 87.6%. The fusion of classifiers of different depths gives greatly improved performance and reduced variability, making the combined classifier more clinically reliable.