Interpretation of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be complicated by obfuscating artifacts. Artifact detection plays an important role in the observation and analysis of EEG signals. Spatial information contained in the placement of the electrodes can be exploited to accurately detect artifacts. However, when fewer electrodes are used, less spatial information is available, making it harder to detect artifacts. In this study, we investigate the performance of a deep learning algorithm, CNN-LSTM, on several channel configurations. Each configuration was designed to minimize the amount of spatial information lost compared to a standard 22-channel EEG. Systems using a reduced number of channels ranging from 8 to 20 achieved sensitivities between 33% and 37% with false alarms in the range of [38, 50] per 24 hours. False alarms increased dramatically (e.g., over 300 per 24 hours) when the number of channels was further reduced. Baseline performance of a system that used all 22 channels was 39% sensitivity with 23 false alarms. Since the 22-channel system was the only system that included referential channels, the rapid increase in the false alarm rate as the number of channels was reduced underscores the importance of retaining referential channels for artifact reduction. This cautionary result is important because one of the biggest differences between various types of EEGs administered is the type of referential channel used.
In current clinical practice, electroencephalograms (EEG) are reviewed and analyzed by well-trained neurologists to provide supports for therapeutic decisions. The way of manual reviewing is labor-intensive and error prone. Automatic and accurate seizure/nonseizure classification methods are needed. One major problem is that the EEG signals for seizure state and nonseizure state exhibit considerable variations. In order to capture essential seizure features, this paper integrates an emerging deep learning model, the independently recurrent neural network (IndRNN), with a dense structure and an attention mechanism to exploit temporal and spatial discriminating features and overcome seizure variabilities. The dense structure is to ensure maximum information flow between layers. The attention mechanism is to capture spatial features. Evaluations are performed in cross-validation experiments over the noisy CHB-MIT data set. The obtained average sensitivity, specificity and precision of 88.80%, 88.60% and 88.69% are better than using the current state-of-the-art methods. In addition, we explore how the segment length affects the classification performance. Thirteen different segment lengths are assessed, showing that the classification performance varies over the segment lengths, and the maximal fluctuating margin is more than 4%. Thus, the segment length is an important factor influencing the classification performance.
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition that affects approximately 70 million people worldwide. Characterised by sudden bursts of excess electricity in the brain, manifesting as seizures, epilepsy is still not well understood when compared with other neurological disorders. Seizures often happen unexpectedly and attempting to predict them has been a research topic for the last 30 years. Electroencephalograms have been integral to these studies, as the recordings that they produce can capture the brain's electrical signals. The diagnosis of epilepsy is usually made by a neurologist, but can be difficult to make in the early stages.
The evaluation of machine learning algorithms in biomedical fields for applications involving sequential data lacks standardization. Common quantitative scalar evaluation metrics such as sensitivity and specificity can often be misleading depending on the requirements of the application. Evaluation metrics must ultimately reflect the needs of users yet be sufficiently sensitive to guide algorithm development. Feedback from critical care clinicians who use automated event detection software in clinical applications has been overwhelmingly emphatic that a low false alarm rate, typically measured in units of the number of errors per 24 hours, is the single most important criterion for user acceptance. Though using a single metric is not often as insightful as examining performance over a range of operating conditions, there is a need for a single scalar figure of merit. In this paper, we discuss the deficiencies of existing metrics for a seizure detection task and propose several new metrics that offer a more balanced view of performance. We demonstrate these metrics on a seizure detection task based on the TUH EEG Corpus. We show that two promising metrics are a measure based on a concept borrowed from the spoken term detection literature, Actual Term-Weighted Value, and a new metric, Time-Aligned Event Scoring (TAES), that accounts for the temporal alignment of the hypothesis to the reference annotation. We also demonstrate that state of the art technology based on deep learning, though impressive in its performance, still needs significant improvement before it will meet very strict user acceptance guidelines.
Seizure detection from EEGs is a challenging and time consuming clinical problem that would benefit from the development of automated algorithms. EEGs can be viewed as structural time series, because they are multivariate time series where the placement of leads on a patient's scalp provides prior information about the structure of interactions. Commonly used deep learning models for time series don't offer a way to leverage structural information, but this would be desirable in a model for structural time series. To address this challenge, we propose the temporal graph convolutional network (TGCN), a model that leverages structural information and has relatively few parameters. TGCNs apply feature extraction operations that are localized and shared over both time and space, thereby providing a useful inductive bias in tasks where one expects similar features to be discriminative across the different sequences. In our experiments we focus on metrics that are most important to seizure detection, and demonstrate that TGCN matches the performance of related models that have been shown to be state-of-the-art in other tasks. Additionally, we investigate interpretability advantages of TGCN by exploring approaches for helping clinicians determine when precisely seizures occur, and the parts of the brain that are most involved.