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Molecular property prediction is one of the fastest-growing applications of deep learning with critical real-world impacts. Including 3D molecular structure as input to learned models improves their performance for many molecular tasks. However, this information is infeasible to compute at the scale required by several real-world applications. We propose pre-training a model to reason about the geometry of molecules given only their 2D molecular graphs. Using methods from self-supervised learning, we maximize the mutual information between 3D summary vectors and the representations of a Graph Neural Network (GNN) such that they contain latent 3D information. During fine-tuning on molecules with unknown geometry, the GNN still produces implicit 3D information and can use it to improve downstream tasks. We show that 3D pre-training provides significant improvements for a wide range of properties, such as a 22% average MAE reduction on eight quantum mechanical properties. Moreover, the learned representations can be effectively transferred between datasets in different molecular spaces. The understanding of molecular and quantum chemistry is a rapidly growing area for deep learning with models having direct real-world impacts in quantum chemistry (Dral, 2020), protein structure prediction (Jumper et al., 2021), materials science (Schmidt et al., 2019), and drug discovery (Stokes et al., 2020). In particular, for the task of molecular property prediction, GNNs have had great success (Yang et al., 2019). GNNs operate on the molecular graph by updating each atom's representation based on the atoms connected to it via covalent bonds. However, these models reason poorly about other important interatomic forces that depend on the atoms' relative positions in space. Previous works showed that using the atoms' 3D coordinates in space improves the accuracy of molecular property prediction (Schütt et al., 2017; Klicpera et al., 2020b; Liu et al., 2021; Klicpera et al., 2021). However, using classical molecular dynamics simulations to explicitly compute a molecule's geometry before predicting its properties is computationally intractable for many real-world applications. Even recent Machine Learning (ML) methods for conformation generation (Xu et al., 2021b; Shi et al., 2021; Ganea et al., 2021) are still too slow for large-scale applications. A GNN is pre-trained by maximizing the mutual information (MI) between its embedding of a 2D molecular graph and a representation capturing the 3D information that is produced by a separate network.
Predicting molecular properties with data-driven methods has drawn much attention in recent years. Particularly, Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have demonstrated remarkable success in various molecular generation and prediction tasks. In cases where labeled data is scarce, GNNs can be pre-trained on unlabeled molecular data to first learn the general semantic and structural information before being fine-tuned for specific tasks. However, most existing self-supervised pre-training frameworks for GNNs only focus on node-level or graph-level tasks. These approaches cannot capture the rich information in subgraphs or graph motifs. For example, functional groups (frequently-occurred subgraphs in molecular graphs) often carry indicative information about the molecular properties. To bridge this gap, we propose Motif-based Graph Self-supervised Learning (MGSSL) by introducing a novel self-supervised motif generation framework for GNNs. First, for motif extraction from molecular graphs, we design a molecule fragmentation method that leverages a retrosynthesis-based algorithm BRICS and additional rules for controlling the size of motif vocabulary. Second, we design a general motif-based generative pre-training framework in which GNNs are asked to make topological and label predictions. This generative framework can be implemented in two different ways, i.e., breadth-first or depth-first. Finally, to take the multi-scale information in molecular graphs into consideration, we introduce a multi-level self-supervised pre-training. Extensive experiments on various downstream benchmark tasks show that our methods outperform all state-of-the-art baselines.
As a promising tool to navigate in the vast chemical space, artificial intelligence (AI) is leveraged for drug design. From the year 2017 to 2021, the number of applications of several recent AI models (i.e. graph neural network (GNN), recurrent neural network (RNN), variation autoencoder (VAE), generative adversarial network (GAN), flow and reinforcement learning (RL)) in drug design increases significantly. Many relevant literature reviews exist. However, none of them provides an in-depth summary of many applications of the recent AI models in drug design. To complement the existing literature, this survey includes the theoretical development of the previously mentioned AI models and detailed summaries of 42 recent applications of AI in drug design. Concretely, 13 of them leverage GNN for molecular property prediction and 29 of them use RL and/or deep generative models for molecule generation and optimization. In most cases, the focus of the summary is the models, their variants, and modifications for specific tasks in drug design. Moreover, 60 additional applications of AI in molecule generation and optimization are briefly summarized in a table. Finally, this survey provides a holistic discussion of the abundant applications so that the tasks, potential solutions, and challenges in AI-based drug design become evident.