Rule induction methods axe classified into two categories, induction of deterministic rules and probabilistic ones(Michalski 1986; Pawlak 1991; Tsumoto and Tanaka 1996). While deterministic rules are supported by positive examples, probabilistic ones are supported by large positive examples and small negative samples. That is, both kinds of rules select positively one decision if a case satisfies their conditional parts. However, domain experts do not use only positive reasoning but also negative reasoning, since a domain is not always deterministic. For example, when a patient does not have a headache, migraine should not be suspected: negative reasoning plays an important role in cutting the search space of a differential diagnosis(Tsumoto and Tanaka 1996). 1 Therefore, negative rules should be induced from databases in order to induce rules which will be easier for domain experts to 1The essential point is that if extracted patterns do not reflect experts' reasoning process, domain experts have difficulties in interpreting them. Without interpretation of domain experts, a discovery procedure would not proceed, which also means that the interaction between human experts and computers is indispensable to computer-assisted discovery.
Characters are a critical part of storytelling and emotion is a vital part of character. Readers generally credit characters with human emotions, and it is these emotions which bring meaning to stories. To computationally construct interesting and meaningful stories we need a model of emotion which allows us to predict characters’ reactions to events in the world. There are many different psychological theories of emotion; the most popular to date for computational applications is the OCC theory. This paper describes a Discrete Event Calculus implementation of the OCC Theory of Emotion. To evaluate our system, we apply it to a selection of Aesop’s fables, and compare the output to the emotions readers expect in the same situations based on a survey.
Multimodality has been recently exploited to overcome the challenges of emotion recognition. In this paper, we present a study of fusion of electroencephalogram (EEG) features and musical features extracted from musical stimuli at decision level in recognizing the time-varying binary classes of arousal and valence. Our empirical results demonstrate that EEG modality was suffered from the non-stability of EEG signals, yet fusing with music modality could alleviate the issue and enhance the performance of emotion recognition.
We propose a first data-driven tuning procedure for divide-and-conquer kernel ridge regression (Zhang et al., 2015). While the proposed criterion is computationally scalable for massive data sets, it is also shown to be asymptotically optimal under mild conditions. The effectiveness of our method is illustrated by extensive simulations and an application to Million Song Dataset.