Collaborating Authors

Robust Method for Semantic Segmentation of Whole-Slide Blood Cell Microscopic Image Machine Learning

Previous works on segmentation of SEM (scanning electron microscope) blood cell image ignore the semantic segmentation approach of whole-slide blood cell segmentation. In the proposed work, we address the problem of whole-slide blood cell segmentation using the semantic segmentation approach. We design a novel convolutional encoder-decoder framework along with VGG-16 as the pixel-level feature extraction model. -e proposed framework comprises 3 main steps: First, all the original images along with manually generated ground truth masks of each blood cell type are passed through the preprocessing stage. In the preprocessing stage, pixel-level labeling, RGB to grayscale conversion of masked image and pixel fusing, and unity mask generation are performed. After that, VGG16 is loaded into the system, which acts as a pretrained pixel-level feature extraction model. In the third step, the training process is initiated on the proposed model. We have evaluated our network performance on three evaluation metrics. We obtained outstanding results with respect to classwise, as well as global and mean accuracies. Our system achieved classwise accuracies of 97.45%, 93.34%, and 85.11% for RBCs, WBCs, and platelets, respectively, while global and mean accuracies remain 97.18% and 91.96%, respectively.

Semantic Segmentation of Anaemic RBCs Using Multilevel Deep Convolutional Encoder-Decoder Network Artificial Intelligence

Pixel-level analysis of blood images plays a pivotal role in diagnosing blood-related diseases, especially Anaemia. These analyses mainly rely on an accurate diagnosis of morphological deformities like shape, size, and precise pixel counting. In traditional segmentation approaches, instance or object-based approaches have been adopted that are not feasible for pixel-level analysis. The convolutional neural network (CNN) model required a large dataset with detailed pixel-level information for the semantic segmentation of red blood cells in the deep learning domain. In current research work, we address these problems by proposing a multi-level deep convolutional encoder-decoder network along with two state-of-the-art healthy and Anaemic-RBC datasets. The proposed multi-level CNN model preserved pixel-level semantic information extracted in one layer and then passed to the next layer to choose relevant features. This phenomenon helps to precise pixel-level counting of healthy and anaemic-RBC elements along with morphological analysis. For experimental purposes, we proposed two state-of-the-art RBC datasets, i.e., Healthy-RBCs and Anaemic-RBCs dataset. Each dataset contains 1000 images, ground truth masks, relevant, complete blood count (CBC), and morphology reports for performance evaluation. The proposed model results were evaluated using crossmatch analysis with ground truth mask by finding IoU, individual training, validation, testing accuracies, and global accuracies using a 05-fold training procedure. This model got training, validation, and testing accuracies as 0.9856, 0.9760, and 0.9720 on the Healthy-RBC dataset and 0.9736, 0.9696, and 0.9591 on an Anaemic-RBC dataset. The IoU and BFScore of the proposed model were 0.9311, 0.9138, and 0.9032, 0.8978 on healthy and anaemic datasets, respectively.

Leishmaniasis Parasite Segmentation and Classification using Deep Learning Artificial Intelligence

Leishmaniasis is considered a neglected disease that causes thousands of deaths annually in some tropical and subtropical countries. There are various techniques to diagnose leishmaniasis of which manual microscopy is considered to be the gold standard. There is a need for the development of automatic techniques that are able to detect parasites in a robust and unsupervised manner. In this paper we present a procedure for automatizing the detection process based on a deep learning approach. We train a U-net model that successfully segments leismania parasites and classifies them into promastigotes, amastigotes and adhered parasites.

Multi-Class Classification of Blood Cells -- End to End Computer Vision based diagnosis case study Machine Learning

The diagnosis of blood-based diseases often involves identifying and characterizing patient blood samples. Automated methods to detect and classify blood cell subtypes have important medical applications. Automated medical image processing and analysis offers a powerful tool for medical diagnosis. In this work we tackle the problem of white blood cell classification based on the morphological characteristics of their outer contour, color. The work we would explore a set of preprocessing and segmentation (Color-based segmentation, Morphological processing, contouring) algorithms along with a set of features extraction methods (Corner detection algorithms and Histogram of Gradients (HOG)), dimentionality reduction algorithms (Principal Component Analysis (PCA)) that are able to recognize and classify through various Unsupervised (k-nearest neighbors) and Supervised (Support Vector Machine, Decision Trees, Linear Discriminant Analysis, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis, Naïve Bayes) algorithms different categories of white blood cells to Eosinophil, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, and Neutrophil. We even take a step forwards to explore various Deep Convolutional Neural network architecture (Sqeezent, MobilenetV1, MobilenetV2, InceptionNet etc.) without preprocessing/segmentation and with preprocessing. We would like to explore many algorithms to identify the robust algorithm with least time complexity and low resource requirement. The outcome of this work can be a cue to selection of algorithms as per requirement for automated blood cell classification.

Multi-label Detection and Classification of Red Blood Cells in Microscopic Images Machine Learning

Cell detection and cell type classification from biomedical images play an important role for high-throughput imaging and various clinical application. While classification of single cell sample can be performed with standard computer vision and machine learning methods, analysis of multi-label samples (region containing congregating cells) is more challenging, as separation of individual cells can be difficult (e.g. touching cells) or even impossible (e.g. overlapping cells). As multi-instance images are common in analyzing Red Blood Cell (RBC) for Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) diagnosis, we develop and implement a multi-instance cell detection and classification framework to address this challenge. The framework firstly trains a region proposal model based on Region-based Convolutional Network (RCNN) to obtain bounding-boxes of regions potentially containing single or multiple cells from input microscopic images, which are extracted as image patches. High-level image features are then calculated from image patches through a pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) with ResNet-50 structure. Using these image features inputs, six networks are then trained to make multi-label prediction of whether a given patch contains cells belonging to a specific cell type. As the six networks are trained with image patches consisting of both individual cells and touching/overlapping cells, they can effectively recognize cell types that are presented in multi-instance image samples. Finally, for the purpose of SCD testing, we train another machine learning classifier to predict whether the given image patch contains abnormal cell type based on outputs from the six networks. Testing result of the proposed framework shows that it can achieve good performance in automatic cell detection and classification.