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WeClick: Weakly-Supervised Video Semantic Segmentation with Click Annotations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Compared with tedious per-pixel mask annotating, it is much easier to annotate data by clicks, which costs only several seconds for an image. However, applying clicks to learn video semantic segmentation model has not been explored before. In this work, we propose an effective weakly-supervised video semantic segmentation pipeline with click annotations, called WeClick, for saving laborious annotating effort by segmenting an instance of the semantic class with only a single click. Since detailed semantic information is not captured by clicks, directly training with click labels leads to poor segmentation predictions. To mitigate this problem, we design a novel memory flow knowledge distillation strategy to exploit temporal information (named memory flow) in abundant unlabeled video frames, by distilling the neighboring predictions to the target frame via estimated motion. Moreover, we adopt vanilla knowledge distillation for model compression. In this case, WeClick learns compact video semantic segmentation models with the low-cost click annotations during the training phase yet achieves real-time and accurate models during the inference period. Experimental results on Cityscapes and Camvid show that WeClick outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, increases performance by 10.24% mIoU than baseline, and achieves real-time execution.


Find Your Own Way: Weakly-Supervised Segmentation of Path Proposals for Urban Autonomy

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present a weakly-supervised approach to segmenting proposed drivable paths in images with the goal of autonomous driving in complex urban environments. Using recorded routes from a data collection vehicle, our proposed method generates vast quantities of labelled images containing proposed paths and obstacles without requiring manual annotation, which we then use to train a deep semantic segmentation network. With the trained network we can segment proposed paths and obstacles at run-time using a vehicle equipped with only a monocular camera without relying on explicit modelling of road or lane markings. We evaluate our method on the large-scale KITTI and Oxford RobotCar datasets and demonstrate reliable path proposal and obstacle segmentation in a wide variety of environments under a range of lighting, weather and traffic conditions. We illustrate how the method can generalise to multiple path proposals at intersections and outline plans to incorporate the system into a framework for autonomous urban driving.


Decompose-and-Integrate Learning for Multi-class Segmentation in Medical Images

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Segmentation maps of medical images annotated by medical experts contain rich spatial information. In this paper, we propose to decompose annotation maps to learn disentangled and richer feature transforms for segmentation problems in medical images. Our new scheme consists of two main stages: decompose and integrate. Decompose: by annotation map decomposition, the original segmentation problem is decomposed into multiple segmentation sub-problems; these new segmentation sub-problems are modeled by training multiple deep learning modules, each with its own set of feature transforms. Integrate: a procedure summarizes the solutions of the modules in the previous stage; a final solution is then formed for the original segmentation problem. Multiple ways of annotation map decomposition are presented and a new end-to-end trainable K-to-1 deep network framework is developed for implementing our proposed "decompose-and-integrate" learning scheme. In experiments, we demonstrate that our decompose-and-integrate segmentation scheme, utilizing state-of-the-art fully convolutional networks (e.g., DenseVoxNet in 3D and CUMedNet in 2D), improves segmentation performance on multiple 3D and 2D datasets. Ablation study confirms the effectiveness of our proposed learning scheme for medical images.


Mask2Former for Video Instance Segmentation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We find Mask2Former also achieves state-of-the-art performance on video instance segmentation without modifying the architecture, the loss or even the training pipeline. In this report, we show universal image segmentation architectures trivially generalize to video segmentation by directly predicting 3D segmentation volumes. Specifically, Mask2Former sets a new state-of-the-art of 60.4 AP on YouTubeVIS-2019 and 52.6 AP on YouTubeVIS-2021. We believe Mask2Former is also capable of handling video semantic and panoptic segmentation, given its versatility in image segmentation. We hope this will make state-of-the-art video segmentation research more accessible and bring more attention to designing universal image and video segmentation architectures.


Image segmentation as an estimation problem

Classics

Picture segmentation is expressed as a sequence of decision problems with the framework of a split-and-merge algorithm. First regions of an arbitrary initial segmentation are tested for uniformity and if not uniform they are subdivided into smaller regions, or set aside if their size is below a given threshold. Next regions classified as uniform are subject to a cluster analysis to identify similar types which are merged. At this point there exist reliable estimates of the parameters of the random field of each type of region and they are used to classify some of the remaining small regions. Any regions remaining after this step are considered part of a boundary ambiguity zone.