Over the past decade, the NASA Autonomous Systems and Operations (ASO) project has developed and demonstrated numerous autonomy enabling technologies employing AI techniques. Our work has employed AI in three distinct ways to enable autonomous mission operations capabilities. Crew Autonomy gives astronauts tools to assist in the performance of each of these mission operations functions. Vehicle System Management uses AI techniques to turn the astronaut's spacecraft into a robot, allowing it to operate when astronauts are not present, or to reduce astronaut workload. AI technology also enables Autonomous Robots as crew assistants or proxies when the crew are not present. We first describe human spaceflight mission operations capabilities. We then describe the ASO project, and the development and demonstration performed by ASO since 2011. We will describe the AI techniques behind each of these demonstrations, which include a variety of symbolic automated reasoning and machine learning based approaches. Finally, we conclude with an assessment of future development needs for AI to enable NASA's future Exploration missions.
The infrastructure of modern society is controlled by software systems that are vulnerable to attacks. Many such attacks, launched by "recreational hackers" have already led to severe disruptions and significant cost. It, therefore, is critical that we find ways to protect such systems and to enable them to continue functioning even after a successful attack. This article describes AWDRAT, a prototype middleware system for providing survivability to both new and legacy applications. AWDRAT stands for architectural differencing, wrappers, diagnosis, recovery, adaptive software, and trust modeling. AWDRAT uses these techniques to gain visibility into the execution of an application system and to compare the application's actual behavior to that which is expected. In the case of a deviation, AWDRAT conducts a diagnosis that determines which computational resources are likely to have been compromised and then adds these assessments to its trust model. The trust model in turn guides the recovery process, particularly by guiding the system in its choice among functionally equivalent methods and resources.AWDRAT has been applied to and evaluated on an example application system, a graphical editor for constructing mission plans. We describe a series of experiments that were performed to test the effectiveness of AWDRAT in recognizing and recovering from simulated attacks, and we present data showing the effectiveness of AWDRAT in detecting a variety of compromises to the application system (approximately 90 percent of all simulated attacks are detected, diagnosed, and corrected). We also summarize some lessons learned from the AWDRAT experiments and suggest approaches for comprehensive application protection methods and techniques.
The automotive industry was the first to promote the development of applications of model-based systems technology on a broad scale and, as a result, has produced some of the most advanced prototypes and products. In this article, we illustrate the features and benefits of model-based systems and qualitative modeling by prototypes and application systems that were developed in the automotive industry to support on-board diagnosis, design for diagnosability, and failure modes and effects analysis.
Cambashi recently completed a research project into the industrial application of the Internet of Things (IoT). The aim was to establish the market's structure and direction based on interviews with major players combined with desk research. Many of the technologies that make up Industrial IoT are well established in their own right. The diagram below shows six'layers' that make up what most people consider to be the Industrial IoT. Many of the technologies that make up Industrial IoT are established Here are the six layers that most people consider to be a part of the Industrial IoT.
The First National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Workshop on Monitoring and Diagnosis was held in Pasadena, California, from 15 to 17 January 1992. The workshop brought together individuals from NASA centers, academia, and aerospace who have a common interest in AIbased approaches to monitoring and diagnosis technology. The workshop was intended to promote familiarity, discussion, and collaboration among the research, development, and user communities. The First National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Workshop on Monitoring and Diagnosis was held in Pasadena, California, from 15 to 17 January 1992. The workshop was hosted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and took place at the Ritz-Carlton Huntington Hotel.