A Joint Model for Question Answering over Multiple Knowledge Bases

AAAI Conferences

As the amount of knowledge bases (KBs) grows rapidly, the problem of question answering (QA) over multiple KBs has drawn more attention. The most significant distinction between multiple KB-QA and single KB-QA is that the former must consider the alignments between KBs. The pipeline strategy first constructs the alignments independently, and then uses the obtained alignments to construct queries. However, alignment construction is not a trivial task, and the introduced noises would be passed on to query construction. By contrast, we notice that alignment construction and query construction are interactive steps, and jointly considering them would be beneficial. To this end, we present a novel joint model based on integer linear programming (ILP), uniting these two procedures into a uniform framework. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms state-of-the-art systems, and is able to improve the performance of both alignment construction and query construction.

Time-Aware Latent Concept Expansion for Microblog Search

AAAI Conferences

Incorporating the temporal property of words into query expansion methods based on relevance feedback has been shown to have a significant positive effect on microblog search.In contrast to such word-based query expansion methods, we propose a concept-based query expansion method based on a temporal relevance model that uses the temporal variation of concepts (e.g., terms and phrases) on microblogs. Our model naturally extends an extremely effective existing concept-based relevance model by tracking the concept frequency over time.Moreover, the proposed model produces important concepts that are frequently used within a particular time periodassociated with a given topic, which better discriminate between relevant and non-relevant microblog documents than words.Our experiments using a corpus of microblog data (Tweets2011 corpus) show that the proposed concept-based query expansion method improves search performance significantly, especially for highly relevant documents.

Diagnosing and Improving Topic Models by Analyzing Posterior Variability

AAAI Conferences

Bayesian inference methods for probabilistic topic models can quantify uncertainty in the parameters, which has primarily been used to increase the robustness of parameter estimates. In this work, we explore other rich information that can be obtained by analyzing the posterior distributions in topic models. Experimenting with latent Dirichlet allocation on two datasets, we propose ideas incorporating information about the posterior distributions at the topic level and at the word level. At the topic level, we propose a metric called topic stability that measures the variability of the topic parameters under the posterior. We show that this metric is correlated with human judgments of topic quality as well as with the consistency of topics appearing across multiple models. At the word level, we experiment with different methods for adjusting individual word probabilities within topics based on their uncertainty. Humans prefer words ranked by our adjusted estimates nearly twice as often when compared to the traditional approach. Finally, we describe how the ideas presented in this work could potentially applied to other predictive or exploratory models in future work.

Mining Large-Scale Knowledge Graphs to Discover Inference Paths for Query Expansion in NLIDB

AAAI Conferences

In this paper, we present an approach to mine large-scale knowledge graphs to discover inference paths for query expansion in NLIDB (Natural Language Interface to Databases). Addressing this problem is important in order for NLIDB applications to effectively handle relevant concepts in the domain of interest that do not correspond to any structured fields in the target database. We also present preliminary observations on the performance of our approach applied to Freebase, and conclude with discussions on next steps to further evaluate and extend our approach.

A Topic Model for Melodic Sequences

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We examine the problem of learning a probabilistic model for melody directly from musical sequences belonging to the same genre. This is a challenging task as one needs to capture not only the rich temporal structure evident in music, but also the complex statistical dependencies among different music components. To address this problem we introduce the Variable-gram Topic Model, which couples the latent topic formalism with a systematic model for contextual information. We evaluate the model on next-step prediction. Additionally, we present a novel way of model evaluation, where we directly compare model samples with data sequences using the Maximum Mean Discrepancy of string kernels, to assess how close is the model distribution to the data distribution. We show that the model has the highest performance under both evaluation measures when compared to LDA, the Topic Bigram and related non-topic models.