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The Electric Turing Acid Test

#artificialintelligence

Parts of this essay by Andrew Smart are adapted from his book Beyond Zero And One (2015), published by OR Books. Machine intelligence is growing at an increasingly rapid pace. The leading minds on the cutting edge of AI research think that machines with human-level intelligence will likely be realized by the year 2100. Beyond this, artificial intelligences that far outstrip human intelligence would rapidly be created by the human-level AIs. This vastly superhuman AI will result from an "intelligence explosion."


Discourse on the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence and the Future Role of Humanity

#artificialintelligence

Artificial intelligence can be defined as "the ability of an artifact to imitate intelligent human behavior" or, more simply, the intelligence exhibited by a computer or machine that enables it to perform tasks that appear intelligent to human observers (Russell & Norvig 2010). AI can be broken down into two different categories: Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI) and Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), which are defined as follows: ANI refers to the ability of a machine or computer program to perform one particular task at an extremely high level or learn how to perform this task faster than any other machine. The most famous example of ANI is Deep Blue, which played chess against Garry Kasparov in 1997. AGI refers to the idea that a computer or machine would one day have the ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equal to that of humans across any given field such as language, motor skills, and social interaction; this would be similar in scope and complexity as natural intelligence. A typical example given for AGI is an educated seven-year-old child.


Are We Smart Enough to Control Artificial Intelligence?

#artificialintelligence

Years ago I had coffee with a friend who ran a startup. He had just turned 40. His father was ill, his back was sore, and he found himself overwhelmed by life. "Don't laugh at me," he said, "but I was counting on the singularity." My friend worked in technology; he'd seen the changes that faster microprocessors and networks had wrought.


Superintelligence Cannot be Contained: Lessons from Computability Theory

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Superintelligence is a hypothetical agent that possesses intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human minds. In light of recent advances in machine intelligence, a number of scientists, philosophers and technologists have revived the discussion about the potentially catastrophic risks entailed by such an entity. In this article, we trace the origins and development of the neo-fear of superintelligence, and some of the major proposals for its containment. We argue that total containment is, in principle, impossible, due to fundamental limits inherent to computing itself. Assuming that a superintelligence will contain a program that includes all the programs that can be executed by a universal Turing machine on input potentially as complex as the state of the world, strict containment requires simulations of such a program, something theoretically (and practically) impossible. "Machines take me by surprise with great frequency. This is largely because I do not do sufficient calculation to decide what to expect them to do." Alan Turing (1950), Computing Machinery and Intelligence, Mind, 59, 433-460


Superintelligence cannot be contained: Lessons from Computability Theory

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The Media Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA Superintelligence is a hypothetical agent that possesses intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human minds. In light of recent advances in machine intelligence, a number of scientists, philosophers and technologists have revived the discussion about the potential catastrophic risks entailed by such an entity. In this article, we trace the origins and development of the neo-fear of superintelligence, and some of the major proposals for its containment. We argue that such containment is, in principle, impossible, due to fundamental limits inherent to computing itself. Assuming that a superintelligence will contain a program that includes all the programs that can be executed by a universal Turing machine on input potentially as complex as the state of the world, strict containment requires simulations of such a program, something theoretically (and practically) infeasible.