How many qubits are needed to out-perform conventional computers, how to protect a quantum computer from the effects of decoherence and how to design more than 1000 qubits fault-tolerant large scale quantum computers, these are the three basic questions we want to deal in this article. Qubit technologies, qubit quality, qubit count, qubit connectivity and qubit architectures are the five key areas of quantum computing are discussed. Earlier we have discussed 7 Core Qubit Technologies for Quantum Computing, 7 Key Requirements for Quantum Computing. Spin-orbit Coupling Qubits for Quantum Computing and AI, Quantum Computing Algorithms for Artificial Intelligence, Quantum Computing and Artificial Intelligence, Quantum Computing with Many World Interpretation Scopes and Challenges and Quantum Computer with Superconductivity at Room Temperature. Here, we will focus on practical issues related to designing large-scale quantum computers.
While researchers don't understand everything about the quantum world, what they do know is that quantum particles hold immense potential, in particular to hold and process large amounts of information. What is quantum computing and how does it work? Quantum computing exploits the puzzling behavior that scientists have been observing for decades in nature's smallest particles – think atoms, photons or electrons. At this scale, the classical laws of physics ceases to apply, and instead we shift to quantum rules. While researchers don't understand everything about the quantum world, what they do know is that quantum particles hold immense potential, in particular to hold and process large amounts of information. Successfully bringing those particles under control in a quantum computer could trigger an explosion of compute power that would phenomenally advance innovation in many fields that require complex calculations, like drug discovery, climate modelling, financial optimization or logistics. As Bob Sutor, chief quantum exponent at IBM, puts it: "Quantum computing is our way of emulating nature to solve extraordinarily difficult problems and make them tractable," he tells ZDNet. What is a quantum computer?
We have all grown accustomed to seeing and using a contemporary computer. Each year, industry behemoths like Intel, AMD, ARM, and NVIDIA, release the next generation of their top-of-the-line silicon, locking horns, and pushing the envelope of the traditional computers that we know today. If we critically evaluate these multitudes of new multi-core CPUs, GPUs, and mammoth compute clusters hosted on the cloud, we will soon realize that faster processors do not necessarily result in increased computational power. Granted, the speed of computation has increased exponentially in the past decades, so has the amount of data we can handle and process. We can store and analyze exabytes of data on the internet, train deep learning models like OpenAI's GPT-3, and enable the computational intelligence needed to defeat champions and grandmasters at complex games like Go and Chess. But have all these technological advances expanded what we can fundamentally do with computers beyond where we started out with? Or simply put, have we changed our traditional model of computing? Modern computers operate according to the principle of a von Neumann architecture (Ogban et.al, 2007).
From the start of computing history, the power of our CPU's is growing exponentially. Henceforth allowing the computer systems to be smaller and more powerful, but this joy ride is about to come to an end. To understand why, first we need to understand the greatest prediction of the 20th century which held on for more than 50 years. Yes, I am talking about the Moore Law, which is named after the Gordon Moore cofounder of Fairchild Semiconductors and CEO of the Intel. The number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit, double about every two years, though the cost of the system is halved.
Supermarket aisles filled with fresh produce are probably not where you would expect to discover some of the first benefits of quantum computing. Quantum computers offer great promise for cryptography and optimization problems. ZDNet explores what quantum computers will and won't be able to do, and the challenges we still face. But Canadian grocery chain Save-On-Foods has become an unlikely pioneer, using quantum technology to improve the management of in-store logistics. In collaboration with quantum computing company D-Wave, Save-On-Foods is using a new type of computing, which is based on the downright weird behaviour of matter at the quantum level.