There are several screening and diagnostic tools doctors use to detect aneurysms. Doctors discover many aortic aneurysms after administering a computerized tomography (CT) scan for some other reason. A CT scan is a painless test that uses contrast dye injected into a vein in the arm and X-rays to get clear pictures of the aorta or brain. A small brain bleed, known as a sentinel hemorrhage, may not be detected on a CT scan, so if it's suspected, the doctor may perform a spinal tap. But a CT scan will pick up a large brain bleed, known as a subarachnoid hemorrhage, Dr. Teitelbaum says.
The death rate from abdominal aortic aneurysms is more than three times higher in England than in the US, analysis of official data shows. The weakening and swelling of the main blood vessel from the heart is normally fatal if it bursts. A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, raised "concern" that English surgeons may be performing preventative operations less often. Experts say the issue should be investigated further. The aorta is normally 2 cm across and international guidelines suggest considering surgery once an aneurysm grows to 5.5 cm in men or 5 cm in women.
Stanford researchers have developed a new AI tool that can help detect aneurysms, a condition that causes blood vessels in the brain to bulge, potentially causing stroke, brain damage or death. The tool, detailed in a paper published in JAMA Network Open, makes use of a deep learning model called HeadXNet to identify areas in the brain that are likely to have an aneurysm. The tool is meant to help clinicians augment their capabilities to detect aneurysm with greater accuracy. According to the findings, the tool "improved clinicians' ability to correctly identify aneurysms at a level equivalent to finding six more aneurysms in 100 scans that contain aneurysms." To train the algorithm, the researchers reviewed and annotated a total of 611 CT angiography examination reports collected over the course of 14 years between 2003 and 2017 at the university's Medical Center.
Could nitric oxide inhibitors help prevent cardiac aneurysm? Aneurysms are the abnormal enlargement of arteries and can lead to death if the artery wall bursts. Oller et al. studied patients with Marfan syndrome, an inherited genetic condition in which individuals are prone to cardiac aneurysms. They discovered lower levels of ADAMTS1 in the heart tissue of Marfan syndrome patients compared with that of organ transplant donors. Genetic inactivation of ADAMTS1 in mice resulted in a Marfan syndrome-like disease, which included low blood pressure, aortic dilation, and aneurysm development.