to

### 11 Classical Time Series Forecasting Methods in Python (Cheat Sheet)

It covers self-study tutorials and end-to-end projects on topics like: Loading data, visualization, modeling, algorithm tuning, and much more...

### ARIMA/SARIMA vs LSTM with Ensemble learning Insights for Time Series Data

AR models express the current value of the time series linearly in terms of its previous values and the current residual, whereas MA models express the current value of the time series linearly in terms of its current and previous residual series. ARMA models are a combination of AR and MA models, in which the current value of the time series is expressed linearly in terms of its previous values and in terms of current and previous residual series. The time series defined in AR, MA, and ARMA models are stationary processes, which means that the mean of the series of any of these models and the covariance among its observations do not change with time. For non-stationary time series, transformation of the series to a stationary series has to be performed first. ARIMA model generally fits the non-stationary time series based on the ARMA model, with a differencing process which effectively transforms the non-stationary data into a stationary one.

### ARIMA/SARIMA vs LSTM with Ensemble learning Insights for Time Series Data

AR models express the current value of the time series linearly in terms of its previous values and the current residual, whereas MA models express the current value of the time series linearly in terms of its current and previous residual series. ARMA models are a combination of AR and MA models, in which the current value of the time series is expressed linearly in terms of its previous values and in terms of current and previous residual series. The time series defined in AR, MA, and ARMA models are stationary processes, which means that the mean of the series of any of these models and the covariance among its observations do not change with time. For non-stationary time series, transformation of the series to a stationary series has to be performed first. ARIMA model generally fits the non-stationary time series based on the ARMA model, with a differencing process which effectively transforms the non-stationary data into a stationary one.

### Forecasting NIFTY 50 benchmark Index using Seasonal ARIMA time series models

This paper analyses how Time Series Analysis techniques can be applied to capture movement of an exchange traded index in a stock market. Specifically, Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) class of models is applied to capture the movement of Nifty 50 index which is one of the most actively exchange traded contracts globally [1]. A total of 729 model parameter combinations were evaluated and the most appropriate selected for making the final forecast based on AIC criteria [8]. NIFTY 50 can be used for a variety of purposes such as benchmarking fund portfolios, launching of index funds, exchange traded funds (ETFs) and structured products. The index tracks the behaviour of a portfolio of blue chip companies, the largest and most liquid Indian securities and can be regarded as a true reflection of the Indian stock market [2].

### Optimal Combination Forecasts on Retail Multi-Dimensional Sales Data

Time series data in the retail world are particularly rich in terms of dimensionality, and these dimensions can be aggregated in groups or hierarchies. Valuable information is nested in these complex structures, which helps to predict the aggregated time series data. From a portfolio of brands under HUUB's monitoring, we selected two to explore their sales behaviour, leveraging the grouping properties of their product structure. Using statistical models, namely SARIMA, to forecast each level of the hierarchy, an optimal combination approach was used to generate more consistent forecasts in the higher levels. Our results show that the proposed methods can indeed capture nested information in the more granular series, helping to improve the forecast accuracy of the aggregated series. The Weighted Least Squares (WLS) method surpasses all other methods proposed in the study, including the Minimum Trace (MinT) reconciliation.