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Breaking Batch Normalization for better explainability of Deep Neural Networks through Layer-wise Relevance Propagation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The lack of transparency of neural networks stays a major break for their use. The Layerwise Relevance Propagation technique builds heat-maps representing the relevance of each input in the model s decision. The relevance spreads backward from the last to the first layer of the Deep Neural Network. Layer-wise Relevance Propagation does not manage normalization layers, in this work we suggest a method to include normalization layers. Specifically, we build an equivalent network fusing normalization layers and convolutional or fully connected layers. Heatmaps obtained with our method on MNIST and CIFAR 10 datasets are more accurate for convolutional layers. Our study also prevents from using Layerwise Relevance Propagation with networks including a combination of connected layers and normalization layer.


Tabular Benchmarks for Joint Architecture and Hyperparameter Optimization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Due to the high computational demands executing a rigorous comparison between hyperparameter optimization (HPO) methods is often cumbersome. The goal of this paper is to facilitate a better empirical evaluation of HPO methods by providing benchmarks that are cheap to evaluate, but still represent realistic use cases. We believe these benchmarks provide an easy and efficient way to conduct reproducible experiments for neural hyperparameter search. Our benchmarks consist of a large grid of configurations of a feed forward neural network on four different regression datasets including architectural hyperparameters and hyperparameters concerning the training pipeline. Based on this data, we performed an in-depth analysis to gain a better understanding of the properties of the optimization problem, as well as of the importance of different types of hyperparameters. Second, we exhaustively compared various different state-of-the-art methods from the hyperparameter optimization literature on these benchmarks in terms of performance and robustness.


A High-Level Guide to Autoencoders

#artificialintelligence

In the wonderful world of machine learning and artificial intelligence, there exists this structure called an autoencoder. Autoencoders are a type neural network which is part of unsupervised learning (or, to some, semi-unsupervised learning). There are many different types of autoencoders used for many purposes, some generative, some predictive, etc. This article should provide you with a toolbox and guide to the different types of autoencoders. The basic type of an autoencoder looks like the one above.


How to Configure the Number of Layers and Nodes in a Neural Network

#artificialintelligence

Artificial neural networks have two main hyperparameters that control the architecture or topology of the network: the number of layers and the number of nodes in each hidden layer. You must specify values for these parameters when configuring your network. The most reliable way to configure these hyperparameters for your specific predictive modeling problem is via systematic experimentation with a robust test harness. This can be a tough pill to swallow for beginners to the field of machine learning, looking for an analytical way to calculate the optimal number of layers and nodes, or easy rules of thumb to follow. In this post, you will discover the roles of layers and nodes and how to approach the configuration of a multilayer perceptron neural network for your predictive modeling problem.


Time-Sequential Self-Organization of Hierarchical Neural Networks

Neural Information Processing Systems

Lateral inhibition operating in the surround of firing cells in each layer provides for unsupervised capture of excitation patterns presented by the previous layer. By presenting patterns of increasing complexity, in coordination with network selforganization, higherlevels of the hierarchy capture concepts implicit in the pattern set. INTRODUCTION A fundamental difficulty in self-organization of hierarchical, multi-layered, networks of simple neuron-like cells is the determination of the direction of adjustment of synaptic link weights between neural layers not directly connected to input or output patterns. Several different approaches have been used to address this problem. One is to provide teaching inputs to the cells in internal layers of the hierarchy.