Throughout this book, we will use the term machine learning to refer to both traditional machine learning and deep learning. Supervised learning is focused on predictive modeling tasks, that is, modeling the relationship between features extracted from the data and one or multiple target variables or labels. While supervised learning is based on labeled data, unsupervised learning aims to model the hidden structure in data without label information. Finally, reinforcement learning is concerned with developing reward systems to model complex decision processes and learning series of actions. Supervised learning is concerned with predicting a target value given input observations.
Machine learning is the subfield of computer science that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed (Arthur Samuel, 1959). Evolved from the study of pattern recognition and computational learning theory in artificial intelligence, machine learning explores the study and construction of algorithms that can learn from and make predictions on data – such algorithms overcome following strictly static program instructions by making data driven predictions or decisions,:2 through building a model from sample inputs. Machine learning is employed in a range of computing tasks where designing and programming explicit algorithms is infeasible; example applications include spam filtering, detection of network intruders or malicious insiders working towards a data breach, optical character recognition (OCR), search engines and computer vision. Machine learning is closely related to (and often overlaps with) computational statistics, which also focuses in prediction-making through the use of computers. It has strong ties to mathematical optimization, which delivers methods, theory and application domains to the field. Machine learning is sometimes conflated with data mining, where the latter subfield focuses more on exploratory data analysis and is known as unsupervised learning.:vii
Recent advances in semi-supervised learning have shown tremendous potential in overcoming a major barrier to the success of modern machine learning algorithms: access to vast amounts of human-labeled training data. Algorithms based on self-ensemble learning and virtual adversarial training can harness the abundance of unlabeled data to produce impressive state-of-the-art results on a number of semi-supervised benchmarks, approaching the performance of strong supervised baselines using only a fraction of the available labeled data. However, these methods often require careful tuning of many hyper-parameters and are usually not easy to implement in practice. In this work, we present a conceptually simple yet effective semi-supervised algorithm based on self-supervised learning to combine semantic feature representations from unlabeled data. Our models are efficiently trained end-to-end for the joint, multi-task learning of labeled and unlabeled data in a single stage. Striving for simplicity and practicality, our approach requires no additional hyper-parameters to tune for optimal performance beyond the standard set for training convolutional neural networks. We conduct a comprehensive empirical evaluation of our models for semi-supervised image classification on SVHN, CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100, and demonstrate results competitive with, and in some cases exceeding, prior state of the art. Reference code and data are available at https://github.com/vuptran/sesemi.
In the previous article, we studied Artificial Intelligence, its functions, and its python implementations. In this article, we will be studying Machine Learning. One thing that I believe is that if we are able to correlate anything with us or our life, there are greater chances of understanding the concept. So I will try to explain everything by relating it to humans.