Stephen William Hawking CH CBE FRS FRSA (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge. His scientific works included a collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation. Hawking was the first to set out a theory of cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. He was a vigorous supporter of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. Hawking was an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (FRSA), a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, and a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. In 2002, Hawking was ranked number 25 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. He was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1979 and 2009 and achieved commercial success with works of popular science in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general. His book, A Brief History of Time, appeared on the British Sunday Times best-seller list for a record-breaking 237 weeks. Hawking had a rare early-onset slow-progressing form of motor neurone disease (also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Lou Gehrig's disease), that gradually paralysed him over the decades. Even after the loss of his speech, he was still able to communicate through a speech-generating device, initially through use of a hand-held switch, and eventually by using a single cheek muscle. Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 in Oxford to Frank (1905–1986) and Isobel Hawking (née Walker; 1915–2013). Despite their families' financial constraints, both parents attended the University of Oxford, where Frank read medicine and Isobel read Philosophy, Politics and Economics. The two met shortly after the beginning of the Second World War at a medical research institute where Isobel was working as a secretary and Frank was working as a medical researcher. They lived in Highgate; but, as London was being bombed in those years, Isobel went to Oxford to give birth in greater safety. Hawking had two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary, and an adopted brother, Edward. In 1950, when Hawking's father became head of the division of parasitology at the National Institute for Medical Research, Hawking and his family moved to St Albans, Hertfordshire.
Twitter chief executive Jack Dorsey has appeared on a podcast with a controversial fitness personality who has promoted scientifically disproven claims that vaccinations cause autism. Host Ben Greenfield – who tweeted in February that "vaccines do indeed cause autism" – thanked Mr Dorsey for an "epic podcast". The Twitter boss responded: "Great conversation and appreciate all you do to simplify the mountains of research focused on increasing one's healthspan! We'll tell you what's true. You can form your own view. His appearance comes as other tech firms like Facebook and Pinterest are cracking down on anti-vaccine content on their platforms. However, Twitter claimed Mr Dorsey was unaware of the host's controversial opinions. A Twitter spokesperson told The Independent that Mr Dorsey did not know about Mr Greenfield's views on vaccinations and that his podcast appearance was not an endorsement of those beliefs. Sheen fought a legal battle against ex-wife Denise Richards to try and ...
The University of Cambridge professor was an iconic figure in both the scientific community and in popular culture, known for his keen mind and humor, as well as his striking physical challenges. Dr. Hawking had long battled with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which left him wheelchair-bound for most of his life. Commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease or motor neuron disease, the condition damages the nerves that control movement and results in paralysis. Patients with ALS typically die within five years of diagnosis. Dr. Hawking, who was diagnosed in 1963 at the age of 21, is believed to have been the longest-living survivor, a fact that still perplexes neurologists.
People who use dating apps such as Tinder may be up to 27 times as likely to use drastic or unhealthy techniques to try and stay slim. Deliberately vomiting, taking laxatives and even using anabolic steroids is more common among dating app users, a study found. Researchers found'unrealistic' desires to look like celebrities on television and social media are driving people to damaging behaviour. And with an estimated 50million people around the world signed up to Tinder the scientists warned experts must better understand its damaging effects. Researchers said social media and TV shows reinforce'ideal' body images which drive men to try and become more muscly and women slimmer, which may drive them to drastic weight loss measures (Pictured: Love Island contestants Anton Danyluk and Amber Gill – the show is well-known for displaying young people with extremely honed bodies.
Data integration is central in Web application development because these applications typically deal with a variety of information formats. Ontology-driven applications face the additional challenge of integrating these multiple formats with the information stored in ontologies. A number of mappings are required to reconcile the variety of formats to produce a coherent overall system. To address these mappings we have developed a number of open source tools that support transformations between some of the common formats encountered when developing an ontology-driven Web application. The Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) is a central building block in these tools. We describe these tools and illustrate their use in the development of a prototype Web-based application.