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How Does Batch Normalization Help Optimization?

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Batch Normalization (BatchNorm) is a widely adopted technique that enables faster and more stable training of deep neural networks (DNNs). Despite its pervasiveness, the exact reasons for BatchNorm's effectiveness are still poorly understood. The popular belief is that this effectiveness stems from controlling the change of the layers' input distributions during training to reduce the so-called "internal covariate shift". In this work, we demonstrate that such distributional stability of layer inputs has little to do with the success of BatchNorm. Instead, we uncover a more fundamental impact of BatchNorm on the training process: it makes the optimization landscape significantly smoother. This smoothness induces a more predictive and stable behavior of the gradients, allowing for faster training.


How Does Batch Normalization Help Optimization?

Neural Information Processing Systems

Batch Normalization (BatchNorm) is a widely adopted technique that enables faster and more stable training of deep neural networks (DNNs). Despite its pervasiveness, the exact reasons for BatchNorm's effectiveness are still poorly understood. The popular belief is that this effectiveness stems from controlling the change of the layers' input distributions during training to reduce the so-called "internal covariate shift". In this work, we demonstrate that such distributional stability of layer inputs has little to do with the success of BatchNorm. Instead, we uncover a more fundamental impact of BatchNorm on the training process: it makes the optimization landscape significantly smoother. This smoothness induces a more predictive and stable behavior of the gradients, allowing for faster training.


How Does Batch Normalization Help Optimization?

Neural Information Processing Systems

Batch Normalization (BatchNorm) is a widely adopted technique that enables faster and more stable training of deep neural networks (DNNs). Despite its pervasiveness, the exact reasons for BatchNorm's effectiveness are still poorly understood. The popular belief is that this effectiveness stems from controlling the change of the layers' input distributions during training to reduce the so-called "internal covariate shift". In this work, we demonstrate that such distributional stability of layer inputs has little to do with the success of BatchNorm. Instead, we uncover a more fundamental impact of BatchNorm on the training process: it makes the optimization landscape significantly smoother. This smoothness induces a more predictive and stable behavior of the gradients, allowing for faster training.


Batch Renormalization: Towards Reducing Minibatch Dependence in Batch-Normalized Models

Neural Information Processing Systems

Batch Normalization is quite effective at accelerating and improving the training of deep models. However, its effectiveness diminishes when the training minibatches are small, or do not consist of independent samples. We hypothesize that this is due to the dependence of model layer inputs on all the examples in the minibatch, and different activations being produced between training and inference. We propose Batch Renormalization, a simple and effective extension to ensure that the training and inference models generate the same outputs that depend on individual examples rather than the entire minibatch. Models trained with Batch Renormalization perform substantially better than batchnorm when training with small or non-i.i.d. minibatches. At the same time, Batch Renormalization retains the benefits of batchnorm such as insensitivity to initialization and training efficiency.


Difference between Local Response Normalization and Batch Normalization

#artificialintelligence

Normalization has become an important of deep neural networks that compensates for the unbounded nature of certain activation functions such as ReLU, ELU etc. With these activation function, the output layers is not constrained within a bounded range (such as [-1,1] for tanh), rather they can grow as high as the training allows it. To limit the unbounded activation from increasing the output layer values, normalization is used just before the activation function. There are two common normalization techniques used in deep neural networks and are often misunderstood by the beginners. In this tutorial, a detailed explanation of both the normalization techniques will be discussed highlighting their key differences.