About this course: Bayesian methods are used in lots of fields: from game development to drug discovery. They give superpowers to many machine learning algorithms: handling missing data, extracting much more information from small datasets. Bayesian methods also allow us to estimate uncertainty in predictions, which is a really desirable feature for fields like medicine. When Bayesian methods are applied to deep learning, it turns out that they allow you to compress your models 100 folds, and automatically tune hyperparametrs, saving your time and money. In six weeks we will discuss the basics of Bayesian methods: from how to define a probabilistic model to how to make predictions from it.
The challenges of effective health risk communication are well known. This paper provides pointers to the health communication literature that discuss these problems. Tailoring printed information, visual displays, and interactive multimedia have been proposed in the health communication literature as promising approaches. On-line risk communication applications are increasing on the internet. However, potential effectiveness of applications using conventional computer technology is limited. We propose that use of artificial intelligence, building upon research in Intelligent Tutoring Systems, might be able to overcome these limitations.
Razzaki, Salman, Baker, Adam, Perov, Yura, Middleton, Katherine, Baxter, Janie, Mullarkey, Daniel, Sangar, Davinder, Taliercio, Michael, Butt, Mobasher, Majeed, Azeem, DoRosario, Arnold, Mahoney, Megan, Johri, Saurabh
Online symptom checkers have significant potential to improve patient care, however their reliability and accuracy remain variable. We hypothesised that an artificial intelligence (AI) powered triage and diagnostic system would compare favourably with human doctors with respect to triage and diagnostic accuracy. We performed a prospective validation study of the accuracy and safety of an AI powered triage and diagnostic system. Identical cases were evaluated by both an AI system and human doctors. Differential diagnoses and triage outcomes were evaluated by an independent judge, who was blinded from knowing the source (AI system or human doctor) of the outcomes. Independently of these cases, vignettes from publicly available resources were also assessed to provide a benchmark to previous studies and the diagnostic component of the MRCGP exam. Overall we found that the Babylon AI powered Triage and Diagnostic System was able to identify the condition modelled by a clinical vignette with accuracy comparable to human doctors (in terms of precision and recall). In addition, we found that the triage advice recommended by the AI System was, on average, safer than that of human doctors, when compared to the ranges of acceptable triage provided by independent expert judges, with only a minimal reduction in appropriateness.
We study an online multi-task learning setting, in which instances of related tasks arrive sequentially, and are handled by task-specific online learners. We consider an algorithmic framework to model the relationship of these tasks via a set of convex constraints. To exploit this relationship, we design a novel algorithm -- COOL -- for coordinating the individual online learners: Our key idea is to coordinate their parameters via weighted projections onto a convex set. By adjusting the rate and accuracy of the projection, the COOL algorithm allows for a trade-off between the benefit of coordination and the required computation/communication. We derive regret bounds for our approach and analyze how they are influenced by these trade-off factors. We apply our results on the application of learning users' preferences on the Airbnb marketplace with the goal of incentivizing users to explore under-reviewed apartments.
It's kind of a no-brainer that Dr. Keith Dreyer would be among those who lead the advance of artificial intelligence into healthcare. Dreyer is a rare breed, a radiologist who teaches at Harvard Medical School, but he also holds a degree in mathematics and has a doctorate in computer science. So it's fitting that Dreyer serves as the chief data science officer at Partners HealthCare, a healthcare network that includes Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, two of America's most prestigious medical institutions.