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Machine Learning in IoT Security: Current Solutions and Future Challenges

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The future Internet of Things (IoT) will have a deep economical, commercial and social impact on our lives. The participating nodes in IoT networks are usually resource-constrained, which makes them luring targets for cyber attacks. In this regard, extensive efforts have been made to address the security and privacy issues in IoT networks primarily through traditional cryptographic approaches. However, the unique characteristics of IoT nodes render the existing solutions insufficient to encompass the entire security spectrum of the IoT networks. This is, at least in part, because of the resource constraints, heterogeneity, massive real-time data generated by the IoT devices, and the extensively dynamic behavior of the networks. Therefore, Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) techniques, which are able to provide embedded intelligence in the IoT devices and networks, are leveraged to cope with different security problems. In this paper, we systematically review the security requirements, attack vectors, and the current security solutions for the IoT networks. We then shed light on the gaps in these security solutions that call for ML and DL approaches. We also discuss in detail the existing ML and DL solutions for addressing different security problems in IoT networks. At last, based on the detailed investigation of the existing solutions in the literature, we discuss the future research directions for ML- and DL-based IoT security.


Machine Learning Systems for Highly-Distributed and Rapidly-Growing Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The usability and practicality of any machine learning (ML) applications are largely influenced by two critical but hard-to-attain factors: low latency and low cost. Unfortunately, achieving low latency and low cost is very challenging when ML depends on real-world data that are highly distributed and rapidly growing (e.g., data collected by mobile phones and video cameras all over the world). Such real-world data pose many challenges in communication and computation. For example, when training data are distributed across data centers that span multiple continents, communication among data centers can easily overwhelm the limited wide-area network bandwidth, leading to prohibitively high latency and high cost. In this dissertation, we demonstrate that the latency and cost of ML on highly-distributed and rapidly-growing data can be improved by one to two orders of magnitude by designing ML systems that exploit the characteristics of ML algorithms, ML model structures, and ML training/serving data. We support this thesis statement with three contributions. First, we design a system that provides both low-latency and low-cost ML serving (inferencing) over large-scale and continuously-growing datasets, such as videos. Second, we build a system that makes ML training over geo-distributed datasets as fast as training within a single data center. Third, we present a first detailed study and a system-level solution on a fundamental and largely overlooked problem: ML training over non-IID (i.e., not independent and identically distributed) data partitions (e.g., facial images collected by cameras varies according to the demographics of each camera's location).


Pedestrian Attribute Recognition: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recognizing pedestrian attributes is an important task in computer vision community due to it plays an important role in video surveillance. Many algorithms has been proposed to handle this task. The goal of this paper is to review existing works using traditional methods or based on deep learning networks. Firstly, we introduce the background of pedestrian attributes recognition (PAR, for short), including the fundamental concepts of pedestrian attributes and corresponding challenges. Secondly, we introduce existing benchmarks, including popular datasets and evaluation criterion. Thirdly, we analyse the concept of multi-task learning and multi-label learning, and also explain the relations between these two learning algorithms and pedestrian attribute recognition. We also review some popular network architectures which have widely applied in the deep learning community. Fourthly, we analyse popular solutions for this task, such as attributes group, part-based, \emph{etc}. Fifthly, we shown some applications which takes pedestrian attributes into consideration and achieve better performance. Finally, we summarized this paper and give several possible research directions for pedestrian attributes recognition. The project page of this paper can be found from the following website: \url{https://sites.google.com/view/ahu-pedestrianattributes/}.


Computationally Efficient Target Classification in Multispectral Image Data with Deep Neural Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Detecting and classifying targets in video streams from surveillance cameras is a cumbersome, error-prone and expensive task. Often, the incurred costs are prohibitive for real-time monitoring. This leads to data being stored locally or transmitted to a central storage site for post-incident examination. The required communication links and archiving of the video data are still expensive and this setup excludes preemptive actions to respond to imminent threats. An effective way to overcome these limitations is to build a smart camera that transmits alerts when relevant video sequences are detected. Deep neural networks (DNNs) have come to outperform humans in visual classifications tasks. The concept of DNNs and Convolutional Networks (ConvNets) can easily be extended to make use of higher-dimensional input data such as multispectral data. We explore this opportunity in terms of achievable accuracy and required computational effort. To analyze the precision of DNNs for scene labeling in an urban surveillance scenario we have created a dataset with 8 classes obtained in a field experiment. We combine an RGB camera with a 25-channel VIS-NIR snapshot sensor to assess the potential of multispectral image data for target classification. We evaluate several new DNNs, showing that the spectral information fused together with the RGB frames can be used to improve the accuracy of the system or to achieve similar accuracy with a 3x smaller computation effort. We achieve a very high per-pixel accuracy of 99.1%. Even for scarcely occurring, but particularly interesting classes, such as cars, 75% of the pixels are labeled correctly with errors occurring only around the border of the objects. This high accuracy was obtained with a training set of only 30 labeled images, paving the way for fast adaptation to various application scenarios.


Dynamic Backdoor Attacks Against Machine Learning Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning (ML) has made tremendous progress during the past decade and is being adopted in various critical real-world applications. However, recent research has shown that ML models are vulnerable to multiple security and privacy attacks. In particular, backdoor attacks against ML models that have recently raised a lot of awareness. A successful backdoor attack can cause severe consequences, such as allowing an adversary to bypass critical authentication systems. Current backdooring techniques rely on adding static triggers (with fixed patterns and locations) on ML model inputs. In this paper, we propose the first class of dynamic backdooring techniques: Random Backdoor, Backdoor Generating Network (BaN), and conditional Backdoor Generating Network (c-BaN). Triggers generated by our techniques can have random patterns and locations, which reduce the efficacy of the current backdoor detection mechanisms. In particular, BaN and c-BaN are the first two schemes that algorithmically generate triggers, which rely on a novel generative network. Moreover, c-BaN is the first conditional backdooring technique, that given a target label, it can generate a target-specific trigger. Both BaN and c-BaN are essentially a general framework which renders the adversary the flexibility for further customizing backdoor attacks. We extensively evaluate our techniques on three benchmark datasets: MNIST, CelebA, and CIFAR-10. Our techniques achieve almost perfect attack performance on backdoored data with a negligible utility loss. We further show that our techniques can bypass current state-of-the-art defense mechanisms against backdoor attacks, including Neural Cleanse, ABS, and STRIP.