Rodriguez, Andres C, Kacprzak, Tomasz, Lucchi, Aurelien, Amara, Adam, Sgier, Raphael, Fluri, Janis, Hofmann, Thomas, Réfrégier, Alexandre

Dark matter in the universe evolves through gravity to form a complex network of halos, filaments, sheets and voids, that is known as the cosmic web. Computational models of the underlying physical processes, such as classical N-body simulations, are extremely resource intensive, as they track the action of gravity in an expanding universe using billions of particles as tracers of the cosmic matter distribution. Therefore, upcoming cosmology experiments will face a computational bottleneck that may limit the exploitation of their full scientific potential. To address this challenge, we demonstrate the application of a machine learning technique called Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) to learn models that can efficiently generate new, physically realistic realizations of the cosmic web. Our training set is a small, representative sample of 2D image snapshots from N-body simulations of size 500 and 100 Mpc. We show that the GAN-produced results are qualitatively and quantitatively very similar to the originals. Generation of a new cosmic web realization with a GAN takes a fraction of a second, compared to the many hours needed by the N-body technique. We anticipate that GANs will therefore play an important role in providing extremely fast and precise simulations of cosmic web in the era of large cosmological surveys, such as Euclid and LSST.

Gupta, Arushi, Matilla, José Manuel Zorrilla, Hsu, Daniel, Haiman, Zoltán

Weak lensing maps contain information beyond two-point statistics on small scales. Much recent work has tried to extract this information through a range of different observables or via nonlinear transformations of the lensing field. Here we train and apply a 2D convolutional neural network to simulated noiseless lensing maps covering 96 different cosmological models over a range of {$\Omega_m,\sigma_8$}. Using the area of the confidence contour in the {$\Omega_m,\sigma_8$} plane as a figure-of-merit, derived from simulated convergence maps smoothed on a scale of 1.0 arcmin, we show that the neural network yields $\approx 5 \times$ tighter constraints than the power spectrum, and $\approx 4 \times$ tighter than the lensing peaks. Such gains illustrate the extent to which weak lensing data encode cosmological information not accessible to the power spectrum or even non-Gaussian statistics such as lensing peaks.

Caldeira, J., Wu, W. L. K., Nord, B., Avestruz, C., Trivedi, S., Story, K. T.

Next-generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments will have lower noise and therefore increased sensitivity, enabling improved constraints on fundamental physics parameters such as the sum of neutrino masses and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. Achieving competitive constraints on these parameters requires high signal-to-noise extraction of the projected gravitational potential from the CMB maps. Standard methods for reconstructing the lensing potential employ the quadratic estimator (QE). However, the QE performs suboptimally at the low noise levels expected in upcoming experiments. Other methods, like maximum likelihood estimators (MLE), are under active development. In this work, we demonstrate reconstruction of the CMB lensing potential with deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) - ie, a ResUNet. The network is trained and tested on simulated data, and otherwise has no physical parametrization related to the physical processes of the CMB and gravitational lensing. We show that, over a wide range of angular scales, ResUNets recover the input gravitational potential with a higher signal-to-noise ratio than the QE method, reaching levels comparable to analytic approximations of MLE methods. We demonstrate that the network outputs quantifiably different lensing maps when given input CMB maps generated with different cosmologies. We also show we can use the reconstructed lensing map for cosmological parameter estimation. This application of CNN provides a few innovations at the intersection of cosmology and machine learning. First, while training and regressing on images, we predict a continuous-variable field rather than discrete classes. Second, we are able to establish uncertainty measures for the network output that are analogous to standard methods. We expect this approach to excel in capturing hard-to-model non-Gaussian astrophysical foreground and noise contributions.

Schmelzle, Jorit, Lucchi, Aurelien, Kacprzak, Tomasz, Amara, Adam, Sgier, Raphael, Réfrégier, Alexandre, Hofmann, Thomas

We demonstrate the potential of Deep Learning methods for measurements of cosmological parameters from density fields, focusing on the extraction of non-Gaussian information. We consider weak lensing mass maps as our dataset. We aim for our method to be able to distinguish between five models, which were chosen to lie along the $\sigma_8$ - $\Omega_m$ degeneracy, and have nearly the same two-point statistics. We design and implement a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) which learns the relation between five cosmological models and the mass maps they generate. We develop a new training strategy which ensures the good performance of the network for high levels of noise. We compare the performance of this approach to commonly used non-Gaussian statistics, namely the skewness and kurtosis of the convergence maps. We find that our implementation of DCNN outperforms the skewness and kurtosis statistics, especially for high noise levels. The network maintains the mean discrimination efficiency greater than $85\%$ even for noise levels corresponding to ground based lensing observations, while the other statistics perform worse in this setting, achieving efficiency less than $70\%$. This demonstrates the ability of CNN-based methods to efficiently break the $\sigma_8$ - $\Omega_m$ degeneracy with weak lensing mass maps alone. We discuss the potential of this method to be applied to the analysis of real weak lensing data and other datasets.

Shirasaki, Masato, Yoshida, Naoki, Ikeda, Shiro, Oogi, Taira, Nishimichi, Takahiro

Galaxy imaging surveys enable us to map the cosmic matter density field through weak gravitational lensing analysis. The density reconstruction is compromised by a variety of noise originating from observational conditions, galaxy number density fluctuations, and intrinsic galaxy properties. We propose a deep-learning approach based on generative adversarial networks (GANs) to reduce the noise in the weak lensing map under realistic conditions. We perform image-to-image translation using conditional GANs in order to produce noiseless lensing maps using the first-year data of the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey. We train the conditional GANs by using 30000 sets of mock HSC catalogs that directly incorporate observational effects. We show that an ensemble learning method with GANs can reproduce the one-point probability distribution function (PDF) of the lensing convergence map within a $0.5-1\sigma$ level. We use the reconstructed PDFs to estimate a cosmological parameter $S_{8} = \sigma_{8}\sqrt{\Omega_{\rm m0}/0.3}$, where $\Omega_{\rm m0}$ and $\sigma_{8}$ represent the mean and the scatter in the cosmic matter density. The reconstructed PDFs place tighter constraint, with the statistical uncertainty in $S_8$ reduced by a factor of $2$ compared to the noisy PDF. This is equivalent to increasing the survey area by $4$ without denoising by GANs. Finally, we apply our denoising method to the first-year HSC data, to place $2\sigma$-level cosmological constraints of $S_{8} < 0.777 \, ({\rm stat}) + 0.105 \, ({\rm sys})$ and $S_{8} < 0.633 \, ({\rm stat}) + 0.114 \, ({\rm sys})$ for the noisy and denoised data, respectively.