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Deep learning for biomedical photoacoustic imaging: A review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a promising emerging imaging modality that enables spatially resolved imaging of optical tissue properties up to several centimeters deep in tissue, creating the potential for numerous exciting clinical applications. However, extraction of relevant tissue parameters from the raw data requires the solving of inverse image reconstruction problems, which have proven extremely difficult to solve. The application of deep learning methods has recently exploded in popularity, leading to impressive successes in the context of medical imaging and also finding first use in the field of PAI. Deep learning methods possess unique advantages that can facilitate the clinical translation of PAI, such as extremely fast computation times and the fact that they can be adapted to any given problem. In this review, we examine the current state of the art regarding deep learning in PAI and identify potential directions of research that will help to reach the goal of clinical applicability


Invertible Neural Networks for Uncertainty Quantification in Photoacoustic Imaging

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Multispectral photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging imaging modality which enables the recovery of functional tissue parameters such as blood oxygenation. However, the underlying inverse problems are potentially ill-posed, meaning that radically different tissue properties may - in theory - yield comparable measurements. In this work, we present a new approach for handling this specific type of uncertainty by leveraging the concept of conditional invertible neural networks (cINNs). Specifically, we propose going beyond commonly used point estimates for tissue oxygenation and converting single-pixel initial pressure spectra to the full posterior probability density. This way, the inherent ambiguity of a problem can be encoded with multiple modes in the output. Based on the presented architecture, we demonstrate two use cases which leverage this information to not only detect and quantify but also to compensate for uncertainties: (1) photoacoustic device design and (2) optimization of photoacoustic image acquisition. Our in silico studies demonstrate the potential of the proposed methodology to become an important building block for uncertainty-aware reconstruction of physiological parameters with PAI.


Compressed Sensing for Photoacoustic Computed Tomography Using an Untrained Neural Network

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Photoacoustic (PA) computed tomography (PACT) shows great potentials in various preclinical and clinical applications. A great number of measurements are the premise that obtains a high-quality image, which implies a low imaging rate or a high system cost. The artifacts or sidelobes could pollute the image if we decrease the number of measured channels or limit the detected view. In this paper, a novel compressed sensing method for PACT using an untrained neural network is proposed, which decreases half number of the measured channels and recoveries enough details. This method uses a neural network to reconstruct without the requirement for any additional learning based on the deep image prior. The model can reconstruct the image only using a few detections with gradient descent. Our method can cooperate with other existing regularization, and further improve the quality. In addition, we introduce a shape prior to easily converge the model to the image. We verify the feasibility of untrained network based compressed sensing in PA image reconstruction, and compare this method with a conventional method using total variation minimization. The experimental results show that our proposed method outperforms 32.72% (SSIM) with the traditional compressed sensing method in the same regularization. It could dramatically reduce the requirement for the number of transducers, by sparsely sampling the raw PA data, and improve the quality of PA image significantly.


Photoacoustic Image Reconstruction Beyond Supervised to Compensate Limit-view and Remove Artifacts

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) reconstructs the initial pressure distribution from raw PA signals. Standard reconstruction always induces artifacts using limited-view signals, which are influenced by limited angle coverage of transducers, finite bandwidth, and uncertain heterogeneous biological tissue. Recently, supervised deep learning has been used to overcome limited-view problem that requires ground-truth. However, even full-view sampling still induces artifacts that cannot be used to train the model. It causes a dilemma that we could not acquire perfect ground-truth in practice. To reduce the dependence on the quality of ground-truth, in this paper, for the first time, we propose a beyond supervised reconstruction framework (BSR-Net) based on deep learning to compensate the limited-view issue by feeding limited-view position-wise data. A quarter position-wise data is fed into model and outputs a group full-view data. Specifically, our method introduces a residual structure, which generates beyond supervised reconstruction result, whose artifacts are drastically reduced in the output compared to ground-truth. Moreover, two novel losses are designed to restrain the artifacts. The numerical and in-vivo results have demonstrated the performance of our method to reconstruct the full-view image without artifacts.


Uncertainty-aware performance assessment of optical imaging modalities with invertible neural networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Purpose: Optical imaging is evolving as a key technique for advanced sensing in the operating room. Recent research has shown that machine learning algorithms can be used to address the inverse problem of converting pixel-wise multispectral reflectance measurements to underlying tissue parameters, such as oxygenation. Assessment of the specific hardware used in conjunction with such algorithms, however, has not properly addressed the possibility that the problem may be ill-posed. Methods: We present a novel approach to the assessment of optical imaging modalities, which is sensitive to the different types of uncertainties that may occur when inferring tissue parameters. Based on the concept of invertible neural networks, our framework goes beyond point estimates and maps each multispectral measurement to a full posterior probability distribution which is capable of representing ambiguity in the solution via multiple modes. Performance metrics for a hardware setup can then be computed from the characteristics of the posteriors. Results: Application of the assessment framework to the specific use case of camera selection for physiological parameter estimation yields the following insights: (1) Estimation of tissue oxygenation from multispectral images is a well-posed problem, while (2) blood volume fraction may not be recovered without ambiguity. (3) In general, ambiguity may be reduced by increasing the number of spectral bands in the camera. Conclusion: Our method could help to optimize optical camera design in an application-specific manner.