Detecting and segmenting brain metastases is a tedious and time-consuming task for many radiologists, particularly with the growing use of multi-sequence 3D imaging. This study demonstrates automated detection and segmentation of brain metastases on multi-sequence MRI using a deep learning approach based on a fully convolution neural network (CNN). In this retrospective study, a total of 156 patients with brain metastases from several primary cancers were included. Pre-therapy MR images (1.5T and 3T) included pre- and post-gadolinium T1-weighted 3D fast spin echo, post-gadolinium T1-weighted 3D axial IR-prepped FSPGR, and 3D fluid attenuated inversion recovery. The ground truth was established by manual delineation by two experienced neuroradiologists. CNN training/development was performed using 100 and 5 patients, respectively, with a 2.5D network based on a GoogLeNet architecture. The results were evaluated in 51 patients, equally separated into those with few (1-3), multiple (4-10), and many (>10) lesions. Network performance was evaluated using precision, recall, Dice/F1 score, and ROC-curve statistics. For an optimal probability threshold, detection and segmentation performance was assessed on a per metastasis basis. The area under the ROC-curve (AUC), averaged across all patients, was 0.98. The AUC in the subgroups was 0.99, 0.97, and 0.97 for patients having 1-3, 4-10, and >10 metastases, respectively. Using an average optimal probability threshold determined by the development set, precision, recall, and Dice-score were 0.79, 0.53, and 0.79, respectively. At the same probability threshold, the network showed an average false positive rate of 8.3/patient (no lesion-size limit) and 3.4/patient (10 mm3 lesion size limit). In conclusion, a deep learning approach using multi-sequence MRI can aid in the detection and segmentation of brain metastases.
Early diagnosis of acute coronary artery occlusion based on electrocardiogram (ECG) findings is essential for prompt delivery of primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Current ST elevation (STE) criteria are specific but insensitive. Consequently, it is likely that many patients are missing out on potentially life-saving treatment. Experts combining non-specific ECG changes with STE detect ischaemia with higher sensitivity, but at the cost of specificity. We show that a deep learning model can detect ischaemia caused by acute coronary artery occlusion with a better balance of sensitivity and specificity than STE criteria, existing computerised analysers or expert cardiologists.
To develop a machine learning-based model for the binary classification of chest radiography abnormalities, to serve as a retrospective tool in guiding clinician reporting prioritisation. The open-source machine learning library, Tensorflow, was used to retrain a final layer of the deep convolutional neural network, Inception, to perform binary normality classification on two, anonymised, public image datasets. Re-training was performed on 47,644 images using commodity hardware, with validation testing on 5,505 previously unseen radiographs. Confusion matrix analysis was performed to derive diagnostic utility metrics. This study demonstrates the application of a machine learning-based approach to classify chest radiographs as normal or abnormal.
Microsoft researchers have created an artificial intelligence-based system that learned how to get the maximum score on the addictive 1980s video game Ms. Pac-Man, using a divide-and-conquer method that could have broad implications for teaching AI agents to do complex tasks that augment human capabilities. The team from Maluuba, a Canadian deep learning startup acquired by Microsoft earlier this year, used a branch of AI called reinforcement learning to play the Atari 2600 version of Ms. Pac-Man perfectly. Using that method, the team achieved the maximum score possible of 999,990. Doina Precup, an associate professor of computer science at McGill University in Montreal said that's a significant achievement among AI researchers, who have been using various videogames to test their systems but have found Ms. Pac-Man among the most difficult to crack. But Precup said she was impressed not just with what the researchers achieved but with how they achieved it.
Triangular, overlapping Mel-scaled filters ("f-banks") are the current standard input for acoustic models that exploit their input's time-frequency geometry, because they provide a psycho-acoustically motivated time-frequency geometry for a speech signal. F-bank coefficients are provably robust to small deformations in the scale. In this paper, we explore two ways in which filter banks can be adjusted for the purposes of speech recognition. First, triangular filters can be replaced with Gabor filters, a compactly supported filter that better localizes events in time, or Gammatone filters, a psychoacoustically-motivated filter. Second, by rearranging the order of operations in computing filter bank features, features can be integrated over smaller time scales while simultaneously providing better frequency resolution. We make all feature implementations available online through open-source repositories. Initial experimentation with a modern end-to-end CNN phone recognizer yielded no significant improvements to phone error rate due to either modification. The result, and its ramifications with respect to learned filter banks, is discussed.