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NeRF-VAE: A Geometry Aware 3D Scene Generative Model

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose NeRF-VAE, a 3D scene generative model that incorporates geometric structure via NeRF and differentiable volume rendering. In contrast to NeRF, our model takes into account shared structure across scenes, and is able to infer the structure of a novel scene -- without the need to re-train -- using amortized inference. NeRF-VAE's explicit 3D rendering process further contrasts previous generative models with convolution-based rendering which lacks geometric structure. Our model is a VAE that learns a distribution over radiance fields by conditioning them on a latent scene representation. We show that, once trained, NeRF-VAE is able to infer and render geometrically-consistent scenes from previously unseen 3D environments using very few input images. We further demonstrate that NeRF-VAE generalizes well to out-of-distribution cameras, while convolutional models do not. Finally, we introduce and study an attention-based conditioning mechanism of NeRF-VAE's decoder, which improves model performance.


Putting NeRF on a Diet: Semantically Consistent Few-Shot View Synthesis

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present DietNeRF, a 3D neural scene representation estimated from a few images. Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF) learn a continuous volumetric representation of a scene through multi-view consistency, and can be rendered from novel viewpoints by ray casting. While NeRF has an impressive ability to reconstruct geometry and fine details given many images, up to 100 for challenging 360{\deg} scenes, it often finds a degenerate solution to its image reconstruction objective when only a few input views are available. To improve few-shot quality, we propose DietNeRF. We introduce an auxiliary semantic consistency loss that encourages realistic renderings at novel poses. DietNeRF is trained on individual scenes to (1) correctly render given input views from the same pose, and (2) match high-level semantic attributes across different, random poses. Our semantic loss allows us to supervise DietNeRF from arbitrary poses. We extract these semantics using a pre-trained visual encoder such as CLIP, a Vision Transformer trained on hundreds of millions of diverse single-view, 2D photographs mined from the web with natural language supervision. In experiments, DietNeRF improves the perceptual quality of few-shot view synthesis when learned from scratch, can render novel views with as few as one observed image when pre-trained on a multi-view dataset, and produces plausible completions of completely unobserved regions.


Fast View Synthesis with Deep Stereo Vision

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Novel view synthesis is an important problem in computer vision and graphics. Over the years a large number of solutions have been put forward to solve the problem. However, the large-baseline novel view synthesis problem is far from being "solved". Recent works have attempted to use Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to solve view synthesis tasks. Due to the difficulty of learning scene geometry and interpreting camera motion, CNNs are often unable to generate realistic novel views. In this paper, we present a novel view synthesis approach based on stereo-vision and CNNs that decomposes the problem into two sub-tasks: view dependent geometry estimation and texture inpainting. Both tasks are structured prediction problems that could be effectively learned with CNNs. Experiments on the KITTI Odometry dataset show that our approach is more accurate and significantly faster than the current state-of-the-art. The code and supplementary material will be publicly available. Results could be found here https://youtu.be/5pzS9jc-5t0.


GeoSim: Photorealistic Image Simulation with Geometry-Aware Composition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Scalable sensor simulation is an important yet challenging open problem for safety-critical domains such as self-driving. Current work in image simulation either fail to be photorealistic or do not model the 3D environment and the dynamic objects within, losing high-level control and physical realism. In this paper, we present GeoSim, a geometry-aware image composition process that synthesizes novel urban driving scenes by augmenting existing images with dynamic objects extracted from other scenes and rendered at novel poses. Towards this goal, we first build a diverse bank of 3D objects with both realistic geometry and appearance from sensor data. During simulation, we perform a novel geometry-aware simulation-by-composition procedure which 1) proposes plausible and realistic object placements into a given scene, 2) renders novel views of dynamic objects from the asset bank, and 3) composes and blends the rendered image segments. The resulting synthetic images are photorealistic, traffic-aware, and geometrically consistent, allowing image simulation to scale to complex use cases. We demonstrate two such important applications: long-range realistic video simulation across multiple camera sensors, and synthetic data generation for data augmentation on downstream segmentation tasks.


Equivariant Neural Rendering

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose a framework for learning neural scene representations directly from images, without 3D supervision. Our key insight is that 3D structure can be imposed by ensuring that the learned representation transforms like a real 3D scene. Specifically, we introduce a loss which enforces equivariance of the scene representation with respect to 3D transformations. Our formulation allows us to infer and render scenes in real time while achieving comparable results to models requiring minutes for inference. In addition, we introduce two challenging new datasets for scene representation and neural rendering, including scenes with complex lighting and backgrounds. Through experiments, we show that our model achieves compelling results on these datasets as well as on standard ShapeNet benchmarks.