This thesis focuses on the research and development of the Hemodynamic Tissue Signature (HTS) method: an unsupervised machine learning approach to describe the vascular heterogeneity of glioblastomas by means of perfusion MRI analysis. The HTS builds on the concept of habitats. An habitat is defined as a sub-region of the lesion with a particular MRI profile describing a specific physiological behavior. The HTS method delineates four habitats within the glioblastoma: the High Angiogenic Tumor (HAT) habitat, as the most perfused region of the enhancing tumor; the Low Angiogenic Tumor (LAT) habitat, as the region of the enhancing tumor with a lower angiogenic profile; the potentially Infiltrated Peripheral Edema (IPE) habitat, as the non-enhancing region adjacent to the tumor with elevated perfusion indexes; and the Vasogenic Peripheral Edema (VPE) habitat, as the remaining edema of the lesion with the lowest perfusion profile. The results of this thesis have been published in ten scientific contributions, including top-ranked journals and conferences in the areas of Medical Informatics, Statistics and Probability, Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Machine Learning and Data Mining and Biomedical Engineering. An industrial patent registered in Spain (ES201431289A), Europe (EP3190542A1) and EEUU (US20170287133A1) was also issued, summarizing the efforts of the thesis to generate tangible assets besides the academic revenue obtained from research publications. Finally, the methods, technologies and original ideas conceived in this thesis led to the foundation of ONCOANALYTICS CDX, a company framed into the business model of companion diagnostics for pharmaceutical compounds, thought as a vehicle to facilitate the industrialization of the ONCOhabitats technology.
Document recommendation systems for locating relevant literature have mostly relied on methods developed a decade ago. This is largely due to the lack of a large offline gold-standard benchmark of relevant documents that cover a variety of research fields such that newly developed literature search techniques can be compared, improved and translated into practice. To overcome this bottleneck, we have established the RElevant LIterature SearcH consortium consisting of more than 1500 scientists from 84 countries, who have collectively annotated the relevance of over 180 000 PubMed-listed articles with regard to their respective seed (input) article/s. The majority of annotations were contributed by highly experienced, original authors of the seed articles. The collected data cover 76% of all unique PubMed Medical Subject Headings descriptors. No systematic biases were observed across different experience levels, research fields or time spent on annotations.
Putting more bobbies on the beat really does cut crime – even if they are just police community support officers, research suggests. It found targeting high-crime areas with PCSOs, who have fewer powers than police constables, saved 56 in prison costs for every 10 spent on extra manpower. The officers spent just over ten minutes twice a day patrolling 34 'hot spots' where crimes were statistically more likely to happen. Just having a visible police presence reduced 999 calls by 20 per cent and led to 39 per cent fewer reported crimes, the research found. In all, the extra 21 minutes of patrols a day in the 34 areas cost 50,000 over the year of the study – equivalent to the salaries of two full-time PCSOs.
What if I told a story here, how would that story start?" Thus, the summarization prompt: "My second grader asked me what this passage means: …" When a given prompt isn't working and GPT-3 keeps pivoting into other modes of completion, that may mean that one hasn't constrained it enough by imitating a correct output, and one needs to go further; writing the first few words or sentence of the target output may be necessary.