Uncertainty-Aware Learning from Demonstration using Mixture Density Networks with Sampling-Free Variance Modeling

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we propose an uncertainty-aware learning from demonstration method by presenting a novel uncertainty estimation method utilizing a mixture density network appropriate for modeling complex and noisy human behaviors. The proposed uncertainty acquisition can be done with a single forward path without Monte Carlo sampling and is suitable for real-time robotics applications. The properties of the proposed uncertainty measure are analyzed through three different synthetic examples, absence of data, heavy measurement noise, and composition of functions scenarios. We show that each case can be distinguished using the proposed uncertainty measure and presented an uncertainty-aware learn- ing from demonstration method of an autonomous driving using this property. The proposed uncertainty-aware learning from demonstration method outperforms other compared methods in terms of safety using a complex real-world driving dataset.


Uncertainty-Aware Attention for Reliable Interpretation and Prediction

Neural Information Processing Systems

Attention mechanism is effective in both focusing the deep learning models on relevant features and interpreting them. However, attentions may be unreliable since the networks that generate them are often trained in a weakly-supervised manner. To overcome this limitation, we introduce the notion of input-dependent uncertainty to the attention mechanism, such that it generates attention for each feature with varying degrees of noise based on the given input, to learn larger variance on instances it is uncertain about. We learn this Uncertainty-aware Attention (UA) mechanism using variational inference, and validate it on various risk prediction tasks from electronic health records on which our model significantly outperforms existing attention models. The analysis of the learned attentions shows that our model generates attentions that comply with clinicians' interpretation, and provide richer interpretation via learned variance. Further evaluation of both the accuracy of the uncertainty calibration and the prediction performance with "I don't know'' decision show that UA yields networks with high reliability as well.


Uncertainty-Aware Attention for Reliable Interpretation and Prediction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Attention mechanism is effective in both focusing the deep learning models on relevant features and interpreting them. However, attentions may be unreliable since the networks that generate them are often trained in a weakly-supervised manner. To overcome this limitation, we introduce the notion of input-dependent uncertainty to the attention mechanism, such that it generates attention for each feature with varying degrees of noise based on the given input, to learn larger variance on instances it is uncertain about. We learn this Uncertainty-aware Attention (UA) mechanism using variational inference, and validate it on various risk prediction tasks from electronic health records on which our model significantly outperforms existing attention models. The analysis of the learned attentions shows that our model generates attentions that comply with clinicians' interpretation, and provide richer interpretation via learned variance. Further evaluation of both the accuracy of the uncertainty calibration and the prediction performance with "I don't know" decision show that UA yields networks with high reliability as well.


Uncertainty-aware Model-based Policy Optimization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Model-based reinforcement learning has the potential to be more sample efficient than model-free approaches. However, existing model-based methods are vulnerable to model bias, which leads to poor generalization and asymptotic performance compared to model-free counterparts. In addition, they are typically based on the model predictive control (MPC) framework, which not only is computationally inefficient at decision time but also does not enable policy transfer due to the lack of an explicit policy representation. In this paper, we propose a novel uncertainty-aware model-based policy optimization framework which solves those issues. In this framework, the agent simultaneously learns an uncertainty-aware dynamics model and optimizes the policy according to these learned models. In the optimization step, the policy gradient is computed by automatic differentiation through the models. With respect to sample efficiency alone, our approach shows promising results on challenging continuous control benchmarks with competitive asymptotic performance and significantly lower sample complexity than state-of-the-art baselines.


End-to-end Driving Deploying through Uncertainty-Aware Imitation Learning and Stochastic Visual Domain Adaptation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

End-to-end visual-based imitation learning has been widely applied in autonomous driving. When deploying the trained visual-based driving policy, a deterministic command is usually directly applied without considering the uncertainty of the input data. Such kind of policies may bring dramatical damage when applied in the real world. In this paper, we follow the recent real-to-sim pipeline by translating the testing world image back to the training domain when using the trained policy. In the translating process, a stochastic generator is used to generate various images stylized under the training domain randomly or directionally. Based on those translated images, the trained uncertainty-aware imitation learning policy would output both the predicted action and the data uncertainty motivated by the aleatoric loss function. Through the uncertainty-aware imitation learning policy, we can easily choose the safest one with the lowest uncertainty among the generated images. Experiments in the Carla navigation benchmark show that our strategy outperforms previous methods, especially in dynamic environments.