Recent comprehensive overview of 40 years of research in cognitive architectures, (Kotseruba and Tsotsos 2020), evaluates modelling of the core cognitive abilities in humans, but only marginally addresses biologically plausible approaches based on natural computation. This mini review presents a set of perspectives and approaches which have shaped the development of biologically inspired computational models in the recent past that can lead to the development of biologically more realistic cognitive architectures. For describing continuum of natural cognitive architectures, from basal cellular to human-level cognition, we use evolutionary info-computational framework, where natural/ physical/ morphological computation leads to evolution of increasingly complex cognitive systems. Forty years ago, when the first cognitive architectures have been proposed, understanding of cognition, embodiment and evolution was different. So was the state of the art of information physics, bioinformatics, information chemistry, computational neuroscience, complexity theory, self-organization, theory of evolution, information and computation. Novel developments support a constructive interdisciplinary framework for cognitive architectures in the context of computing nature, where interactions between constituents at different levels of organization lead to complexification of agency and increased cognitive capacities. We identify several important research questions for further investigation that can increase understanding of cognition in nature and inspire new developments of cognitive technologies. Recently, basal cell cognition attracted a lot of interest for its possible applications in medicine, new computing technologies, as well as micro- and nanorobotics.
The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the mechanisms of AIS; these are the idiotypic network approach and the Dendritic Cell Algorithm.
At present, artificial intelligence in the form of machine learning is making impressive progress, especially the field of deep learning (DL) . Deep learning algorithms have been inspired from the beginning by nature, specifically by the human brain, in spite of our incomplete knowledge about its brain function. Learning from nature is a two-way process as discussed in , computing is learning from neuroscience, while neuroscience is quickly adopting information processing models. The question is, what can the inspiration from computational nature at this stage of the development contribute to deep learning and how much models and experiments in machine learning can motivate, justify and lead research in neuroscience and cognitive science and to practical applications of artificial intelligence.
Biologically-inspired methods such as evolutionary algorithms and neural networks are proving useful in the field of information fusion. Artificial Immune Systems (AISs) are a biologically-inspired approach which take inspiration from the biological immune system. Interestingly, recent research has show how AISs which use multi-level information sources as input data can be used to build effective algorithms for real time computer intrusion detection. This research is based on biological information fusion mechanisms used by the human immune system and as such might be of interest to the information fusion community. The aim of this paper is to present a summary of some of the biological information fusion mechanisms seen in the human immune system, and of how these mechanisms have been implemented as AISs
Innate immunity now occupies a central role in immunology. However, artificial immune system models have largely been inspired by adaptive not innate immunity. This paper reviews the biological principles and properties of innate immunity and, adopting a conceptual framework, asks how these can be incorporated into artificial models. The aim is to outline a meta-framework for models of innate immunity.