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Learning Weakly-Supervised Contrastive Representations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We argue that a form of the valuable information provided by the auxiliary information is its implied data clustering information. For instance, considering hashtags as auxiliary information, we can hypothesize that an Instagram image will be semantically more similar with the same hashtags. With this intuition, we present a two-stage weakly-supervised contrastive learning approach. The first stage is to cluster data according to its auxiliary information. The second stage is to learn similar representations within the same cluster and dissimilar representations for data from different clusters. Our empirical experiments suggest the following three contributions. First, compared to conventional self-supervised representations, the auxiliary-information-infused representations bring the performance closer to the supervised representations, which use direct downstream labels as supervision signals. Second, our approach performs the best in most cases, when comparing our approach with other baseline representation learning methods that also leverage auxiliary data information. Third, we show that our approach also works well with unsupervised constructed clusters (e.g., no auxiliary information), resulting in a strong unsupervised representation learning approach.


As easy as APC: overcoming missing data and class imbalance in time series with self-supervised learning

#artificialintelligence

High levels of missing data and strong class imbalance are ubiquitous challenges that are often presented simultaneously in real-world time series data. Existing methods approach these problems separately, frequently making significant assumptions about the underlying data generation process in order to lessen the impact of missing information. In this work, we instead demonstrate how a general self-supervised training method, namely Autoregressive Predictive Coding (APC), can be leveraged to overcome both missing data and class imbalance simultaneously without strong assumptions. Specifically, on a synthetic dataset, we show that standard baselines are substantially improved upon through the use of APC, yielding the greatest gains in the combined setting of high missingness and severe class imbalance. We further apply APC on two real-world medical time-series datasets, and show that APC improves the classification performance in all settings, ultimately achieving state-of-the-art AUPRC results on the Physionet benchmark.


10 Machine Learning Methods that Every Data Scientist Should Know

#artificialintelligence

Machine learning is a hot topic in research and industry, with new methodologies developed all the time. The speed and complexity of the field makes keeping up with new techniques difficult even for experts -- and potentially overwhelming for beginners. To demystify machine learning and to offer a learning path for those who are new to the core concepts, let's look at ten different methods, including simple descriptions, visualizations, and examples for each one. A machine learning algorithm, also called model, is a mathematical expression that represents data in the context of a problem, often a business problem. The aim is to go from data to insight.


Pushing the limits of self-supervised ResNets: Can we outperform supervised learning without labels on ImageNet?

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Despite recent progress made by self-supervised methods in representation learning with residual networks, they still underperform supervised learning on the ImageNet classification benchmark, limiting their applicability in performance-critical settings. Building on prior theoretical insights from Mitrovic et al., 2021, we propose ReLICv2 which combines an explicit invariance loss with a contrastive objective over a varied set of appropriately constructed data views. ReLICv2 achieves 77.1% top-1 classification accuracy on ImageNet using linear evaluation with a ResNet50 architecture and 80.6% with larger ResNet models, outperforming previous state-of-the-art self-supervised approaches by a wide margin. Most notably, ReLICv2 is the first representation learning method to consistently outperform the supervised baseline in a like-for-like comparison using a range of standard ResNet architectures. Finally we show that despite using ResNet encoders, ReLICv2 is comparable to state-of-the-art self-supervised vision transformers.


Cooperative Learning of Audio and Video Models from Self-Supervised Synchronization

Neural Information Processing Systems

There is a natural correlation between the visual and auditive elements of a video. In this work we leverage this connection to learn general and effective models for both audio and video analysis from self-supervised temporal synchronization. We demonstrate that a calibrated curriculum learning scheme, a careful choice of negative examples, and the use of a contrastive loss are critical ingredients to obtain powerful multi-sensory representations from models optimized to discern temporal synchronization of audio-video pairs. Without further fine-tuning, the resulting audio features achieve performance superior or comparable to the state-of-the-art on established audio classification benchmarks (DCASE2014 and ESC-50). At the same time, our visual subnet provides a very effective initialization to improve the accuracy of video-based action recognition models: compared to learning from scratch, our self-supervised pretraining yields a remarkable gain of 19.9% in action recognition accuracy on UCF101 and a boost of 17.7% on HMDB51.