It began with the "heartless" Tin man from the Wizard of Oz and continued with the humanoid robot that impersonated Maria in Metropolis. By the 1950s, we had a generation of scientists, mathematicians, and philosophers with the concept of artificial intelligence (or AI) culturally assimilated in their minds. One such person was Alan Turing, a young British polymath who explored the mathematical possibility of artificial intelligence. Turing suggested that humans use available information as well as reason in order to solve problems and make decisions, so why can't machines do the same thing? This was the logical framework of his 1950 paper, Computing Machinery and Intelligence in which he discussed how to build intelligent machines and how to test their intelligence.
For over seventy years the story of artificial intelligence (AI) has been one of saturating the capabilities of AI to the level of computational power available, and then waiting for Moore's Law to catch up. During that time there have been bubbles of AI hype, research booms, funding busts and a quiet rebirth. The AI story starts with Alan Turing, a young British polymath who explored the mathematical possibility of artificial intelligence. Turing suggested that humans use available information as well as reason in order to solve problems and to make decisions. Turing postulated that machines which could do the same thing.
The history of artificial intelligence (AI) began in antiquity, with myths, stories and rumors of artificial beings endowed with intelligence or consciousness by master craftsmen; as Pamela McCorduck writes, AI began with "an ancient wish to forge the gods." The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who attempted to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols. This work culminated in the invention of the programmable digital computer in the 1940s, a machine based on the abstract essence of mathematical reasoning. This device and the ideas behind it inspired a handful of scientists to begin seriously discussing the possibility of building an electronic brain. The Turing test was proposed by British mathematician Alan Turing in his 1950 paper Computing Machinery and Intelligence, which opens with the words: "I propose to consider the question, 'Can machines think?'" The term'Artificial Intelligence' was created at a conference held at Dartmouth College in 1956. Allen Newell, J. C. Shaw, and Herbert A. Simon pioneered the newly created artificial intelligence field with the Logic Theory Machine (1956), and the General Problem Solver in 1957. In 1958, John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky started the MIT Artificial Intelligence lab with 50,000. John McCarthy also created LISP in the summer of 1958, a programming language still important in artificial intelligence research. In 1973, in response to the criticism of James Lighthill and ongoing pressure from congress, the U.S. and British Governments stopped funding undirected research into artificial intelligence. Seven years later, a visionary initiative by the Japanese Government inspired governments and industry to provide AI with billions of dollars, but by the late 80s the investors became disillusioned and withdrew funding again. McCorduck (2004) writes "artificial intelligence in one form or another is an idea that has pervaded Western intellectual history, a dream in urgent need of being realized," expressed in humanity's myths, legends, stories, speculation and clockwork automatons. Mechanical men and artificial beings appear in Greek myths, such as the golden robots of Hephaestus and Pygmalion's Galatea. In the Middle Ages, there were rumors of secret mystical or alchemical means of placing mind into matter, such as J?bir ibn Hayy?n's Takwin, Paracelsus' homunculus and Rabbi Judah Loew's Golem. By the 19th century, ideas about artificial men and thinking machines were developed in fiction, as in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein or Karel?apek's
Through generations, the field of artificial intelligence has persevered and become a hugely significant part of modern life. Of the myriad technological advances of the 20th and 21st centuries, one of the most influential is undoubtedly artificial intelligence (AI). From search engine algorithms reinventing how we look for information to Amazon's Alexa in the consumer sector, AI has become a major technology driving the entire tech industry forward into the future. According to a study from Grand View Research, the global AI industry was valued at $93.5 billion in 2021. AI as a force in the tech industry exploded in prominence in the 2000s and 2010s, but AI has been around in some form or fashion since at least 1950 and arguably stretches back even further than that.
As it stands out today,Artificial intelligence elucidates simulation of human intelligence bymachines, particularly computer systems. AI programming focuses on three basiccognitive skills which are learning, reasoning and self-correction. Learning processes is theaspect of AI programming which focuses on acquiring data and creating rules forhow to turn the data into actionable information. These rules are calledalgorithms, and they provide the computing devices stepwise instructions on howto complete a specific task. Reasoning processes is theaspect of AI programming that focuses on choosing the right algorithm to reacha desired outcome. Typically, AI systems demonstrate at least some behaviours which are associated with human intelligence; thesebehaviours are planning,learning, reasoning, problem solving, knowledge representation, perception, motion, and manipulation and, to a lesserextent, social intelligence and creativity. The roots of computing dates back to the Logic Theoristprogram which was presented at the Dartmouth Summer scientific research onArtificial Intelligence (DSRPAI) hosted by John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky in1956.