Capsule Neural Networks – Part 2: What is a Capsule?


In classic CNNs, each neuron in the first layer represents a pixel. Then, it feeds this information forward to next layers. The next convolutional layers group a bunch of neurons together, so that a single neuron there can represent a whole frame (bunch) of neurons. Thus, it can learn to represent a group of pixels that look something like a snout, especially if we have many examples of those in our dataset, and the neural net will learn to increase the weight (importance) of that snout neuron feature when identifying if that image is of a dog. However, this method solely cares about the existence of the object in the picture around a specific location; but it is insensitive to the spatial relations and direction of the object.

Pay attention! - Robustifying a Deep Visuomotor Policy through Task-Focused Attention Artificial Intelligence

Several recent projects demonstrated the promise of end-to-end learned deep visuomotor policies for robot manipulator control. Despite impressive progress, these systems are known to be vulnerable to physical disturbances, such as accidental or adversarial bumps that make them drop the manipulated object. They also tend to be distracted by visual disturbances such as objects moving in the robot's field of view, even if the disturbance does not physically prevent the execution of the task. In this paper we propose a technique for augmenting a deep visuomotor policy trained through demonstrations with task-focused attention. The manipulation task is specified with a natural language text such as "move the red bowl to the left". This allows the attention component to concentrate on the current object that the robot needs to manipulate. We show that even in benign environments, the task focused attention allows the policy to consistently outperform a variant with no attention mechanism. More importantly, the new policy is significantly more robust: it regularly recovers from severe physical disturbances (such as bumps causing it to drop the object) from which the unmodified policy almost never recovers. In addition, we show that the proposed policy performs correctly in the presence of a wide class of visual disturbances, exhibiting a behavior reminiscent of human selective attention experiments.

Predicting Novel Views Using Generative Adversarial Query Network Artificial Intelligence

The problem of predicting a novel view of the scene using an arbitrary number of observations is a challenging problem for computers as well as for humans. This paper introduces the Generative Adversarial Query Network (GAQN), a general learning framework for novel view synthesis that combines Generative Query Network (GQN) and Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). The conventional GQN encodes input views into a latent representation that is used to generate a new view through a recurrent variational decoder. The proposed GAQN builds on this work by adding two novel aspects: First, we extend the current GQN architecture with an adversarial loss function for improving the visual quality and convergence speed. Second, we introduce a feature-matching loss function for stabilizing the training procedure. The experiments demonstrate that GAQN is able to produce high-quality results and faster convergence compared to the conventional approach.

Generating Triples With Adversarial Networks for Scene Graph Construction

AAAI Conferences

Driven by successes in deep learning, computer vision research has begun to move beyond object detection and image classification to more sophisticated tasks like image captioning or visual question answering. Motivating such endeavors is the desire for models to capture not only objects present in an image, but more fine-grained aspects of a scene such as relationships between objects and their attributes. Scene graphs provide a formal construct for capturing these aspects of an image. Despite this, there have been only a few recent efforts to generate scene graphs from imagery. Previous works limit themselves to settings where bounding box information is available at train time and do not attempt to generate scene graphs with attributes. In this paper we propose a method, based on recent advancements in Generative Adversarial Networks, to overcome these deficiencies. We take the approach of first generating small subgraphs, each describing a single statement about a scene from a specific region of the input image chosen using an attention mechanism. By doing so, our method is able to produce portions of the scene graphs with attribute information without the need for bounding box labels. Then, the complete scene graph is constructed from these subgraphs. We show that our model improves upon prior work in scene graph generation on state-of-the-art data sets and accepted metrics. Further, we demonstrate that our model is capable of handling a larger vocabulary size than prior work has attempted.

MONet: Unsupervised Scene Decomposition and Representation Machine Learning

The ability to decompose scenes in terms of abstract building blocks is crucial for general intelligence. Where those basic building blocks share meaningful properties, interactions and other regularities across scenes, such decompositions can simplify reasoning and facilitate imagination of novel scenarios. In particular, representing perceptual observations in terms of entities should improve data efficiency and transfer performance on a wide range of tasks. Thus we need models capable of discovering useful decompositions of scenes by identifying units with such regularities and representing them in a common format. To address this problem, we have developed the Multi-Object Network (MONet). In this model, a VAE is trained end-to-end together with a recurrent attention network -- in a purely unsupervised manner -- to provide attention masks around, and reconstructions of, regions of images. We show that this model is capable of learning to decompose and represent challenging 3D scenes into semantically meaningful components, such as objects and background elements.