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Fake News: A Survey of Research, Detection Methods, and Opportunities

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The explosive growth in fake news and its erosion to democracy, justice, and public trust has increased the demand for fake news analysis, detection and intervention. This survey comprehensively and systematically reviews fake news research. The survey identifies and specifies fundamental theories across various disciplines, e.g., psychology and social science, to facilitate and enhance the interdisciplinary research of fake news. Current fake news research is reviewed, summarized and evaluated. These studies focus on fake news from four perspective: (1) the false knowledge it carries, (2) its writing style, (3) its propagation patterns, and (4) the credibility of its creators and spreaders. We characterize each perspective with various analyzable and utilizable information provided by news and its spreaders, various strategies and frameworks that are adaptable, and techniques that are applicable. By reviewing the characteristics of fake news and open issues in fake news studies, we highlight some potential research tasks at the end of this survey.


Latent Semantic Search and Information Extraction Architecture

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The motivation, concept, design and implementation of latent semantic search for search engines have limited semantic search, entity extraction and property attribution features, have insufficient accuracy and response time of latent search, may impose privacy concerns and the search results are unavailable in offline mode for robotic search operations. The alternative suggestion involves autonomous search engine with adaptive storage consumption, configurable search scope and latent search response time with built-in options for entity extraction and property attribution available as open source platform for mobile, desktop and server solutions. The suggested architecture attempts to implement artificial general intelligence (AGI) principles as long as autonomous behaviour constrained by limited resources is concerned, and it is applied for specific task of enabling Web search for artificial agents implementing the AGI.


Modeling Product Search Relevance in e-Commerce

arXiv.org Machine Learning

With the rapid growth of e-Commerce, online product search has emerged as a popular and effective paradigm for customers to find desired products and engage in online shopping. However, there is still a big gap between the products that customers really desire to purchase and relevance of products that are suggested in response to a query from the customer. In this paper, we propose a robust way of predicting relevance scores given a search query and a product, using techniques involving machine learning, natural language processing and information retrieval. We compare conventional information retrieval models such as BM25 and Indri with deep learning models such as word2vec, sentence2vec and paragraph2vec. We share some of our insights and findings from our experiments.


Record Linkage to Match Customer Names: A Probabilistic Approach

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Consider the following problem: given a database of records indexed by names (e.g., name of companies, restaurants, businesses, or universities) and a new name, determine whether the new name is in the database, and if so, which record it refers to. This problem is an instance of record linkage problem and is a challenging problem because people do not consistently use the official name, but use abbreviations, synonyms, different order of terms, different spelling of terms, short form of terms, and the name can contain typos or spacing issues. We provide a probabilistic model using relational logistic regression to find the probability of each record in the database being the desired record for a given query and find the best record(s) with respect to the probabilities. Building on term-matching and translational approaches for search, our model addresses many of the aforementioned challenges and provides good results when existing baselines fail. Using the probabilities outputted by the model, we can automate the search process for a portion of queries whose desired documents get a probability higher than a trust threshold. We evaluate our model on a large real-world dataset from a telecommunications company and compare it to several state-of-the-art baselines. The obtained results show that our model is a promising probabilistic model for record linkage for names. We also test if the knowledge learned by our model on one domain can be effectively transferred to a new domain. For this purpose, we test our model on an unseen test set from the business names of the secondString dataset. Promising results show that our model can be effectively applied to unseen datasets. Finally, we study the sensitivity of our model to the statistics of datasets.


Eliminating Search Intent Bias in Learning to Rank

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Click-through data has proven to be a valuable resource for improving search-ranking quality. Search engines can easily collect click data, but biases introduced in the data can make it difficult to use the data effectively. In order to measure the effects of biases, many click models have been proposed in the literature. However, none of the models can explain the observation that users with different search intent (e.g., informational, navigational, etc.) have different click behaviors. In this paper, we study how differences in user search intent can influence click activities and determined that there exists a bias between user search intent and the relevance of the document relevance. Based on this observation, we propose a search intent bias hypothesis that can be applied to most existing click models to improve their ability to learn unbiased relevance. Experimental results demonstrate that after adopting the search intent hypothesis, click models can better interpret user clicks and substantially improve retrieval performance.