The goal of machine learning is to program computers to use example data or past experience to solve a given problem. Many successful applications of machine learning exist already, including systems that analyze past sales data to predict customer behavior, optimize robot behavior so that a task can be completed using minimum resources, and extract knowledge from bioinformatics data. Introduction to Machine Learning is a comprehensive textbook on the subject, covering a broad array of topics not usually included in introductory machine learning texts. Subjects include supervised learning; Bayesian decision theory; parametric, semi-parametric, and nonparametric methods; multivariate analysis; hidden Markov models; reinforcement learning; kernel machines; graphical models; Bayesian estimation; and statistical testing. Machine learning is rapidly becoming a skill that computer science students must master before graduation.

Deep learning is sometimes referred to as the intersection between machine learning and artificial intelligence. It is about designing algorithms that can make robots intelligent, such a face recognition techniques used in drones to detect and target terrorists, or pattern recognition / computer vision algorithms to automatically pilot a plane, a train, a boat or a car. Many deep learning algorithms (clustering, pattern recognition, automated bidding, recommendation engine, and so on) -- even though they appear in new contexts such as IoT or machine to machine communication -- still rely on relatively old-fashioned techniques such as logistic regression, SVM, decision trees, K-NN, naive Bayes, Bayesian modeling, ensembles, random forests, signal processing, filtering, graph theory, gaming theory, and many others. Some are new, such as indexation algorithms to automate digital publishing, improve search engines, or create and manage large catalogs such as Amazon's product listing. As a result, many deep learning practitioners call themselves data scientist, computer scientist, statistician, or sometimes engineer.

The Fourth Industrial Revolution is upon us, even with the Third is still in progress. Big Data, Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence are three of the driving forces behind it. While the term'Industrial Revolution' has always applied mainly to manufacturing, it now also involves service industries such as banking and insurance, who are investing heavily in Big Data to help them model credit risk, fraud, marketing success and other key data. Meanwhile manufacturing, retail, telco, pharma and many other sectors constantly need people skilled in building, analysing, monitoring and maintaining data models to gain strategic intelligence that helps them inform and adapt their key business processes. A leader in the world of Data Analytics is the SAS Institute, whose flagship product is SAS (Statistical Analysis System).

Morever, these algorithms are robust, so don't require problem-specific hand-tuning. One powerful example is sampling from an arbitrary probability distribution, which we need to do often (and efficiently!) when doing inference. The brute force approach, rejection sampling, is problematic because acceptance rates are low: as only a tiny fraction of attempts generate successful samples, the algorithms are slow and inefficient. See this post by Jeremey Kun for further details. Until recently, the main alternative to this naive approach was Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling (of which Metropolis Hastings and Gibbs sampling are well-known examples). If you used Bayesian inference in the 90s or early 2000s, you may remember BUGS (and WinBUGS) or JAGS, which used these methods. These remain popular teaching tools (see e.g.