Manually checking models for compliance against building regulation is a time-consuming task for architects and construction engineers. There is thus a need for algorithms that process information from construction projects and report non-compliant elements. Still automated code-compliance checking raises several obstacles. Building regulations are usually published as human readable texts and their content is often ambiguous or incomplete. Also, the vocabulary used for expressing such regulations is very different from the vocabularies used to express Building Information Models (BIM). Furthermore, the high level of details associated to BIM-contained geometries induces complex calculations. Finally, the level of complexity of the IFC standard also hinders the automation of IFC processing tasks. Model chart, formal rules and pre-processors approach allows translating construction regulations into semantic queries. We further demonstrate the usefulness of this approach through several use cases. We argue our approach is a step forward in bridging the gap between regulation texts and automated checking algorithms. Finally with the recent building ontology BOT recommended by the W3C Linked Building Data Community Group, we identify perspectives for standardizing and extending our approach.
Business ontology can enhance the successful development of complex enterprise system; this is being achieved through knowledge sharing and the ease of communication between every entity in the domain. Through human semantic interaction with the web resources, machines to interpret the data published in a machine interpretable form under web. However, the theoretical practice of business ontology in eCommerce domain is quite a few especially in the section of electronic transaction, and the various techniques used to obtain efficient communication across spheres are error prone and are not always guaranteed to be efficient in obtaining desired result due to poor semantic integration between entities. To overcome the poor semantic integration this research focuses on proposed ontology called LB2CO, which combines the framework of IDEF5 & SNAP as an analysis tool, for automated recommendation of product and services and create effective ontological framework for B2C transaction & communication across different business domains that facilitates the interoperability & integration of B2C transactions over the web.
Semantic Web is actually an extension of the current one in that it represents information more meaningfully for humans and computers alike. It enables the description of contents and services in machine-readable form, and enables annotating, discovering, publishing, advertising and composing services to be automated. It was developed based on Ontology, which is considered as the backbone of the Semantic Web. In other words, the current Web is transformed from being machine-readable to machine-understandable. In fact, Ontology is a key technique with which to annotate semantics and provide a common, comprehensible foundation for resources on the Semantic Web. Moreover, Ontology can provide a common vocabulary, a grammar for publishing data, and can supply a semantic description of data which can be used to preserve the Ontologies and keep them ready for inference. This paper provides basic concepts of web services and the Semantic Web, defines the structure and the main applications of ontology, and provides many relevant terms are explained in order to provide a basic understanding of ontologies.
This paper develops the concept of knowledge and its exchange using Semantic Web technologies. It points out that knowledge is more than information because it embodies the meaning, that is to say semantic and context. These characteristics will influence our approach to represent and to treat the knowledge. In order to be adopted, the developed system needs to be simple and to use standards. The goal of the paper is to find standards to model knowledge and exchange it with an other person. Therefore, we propose to model knowledge using UML models to show a graphical representation and to exchange it with XML to ensure the portability at low cost. We introduce the concept of ontology for organizing knowledge and for facilitating the knowledge exchange. Proposals have been tested by implementing an application on the design knowledge of a pen.