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Two-stage Deep Neural Network via Ensemble Learning for Melanoma Classification

#artificialintelligence

Melanoma is a skin disease with a high fatality rate. Early diagnosis of melanoma can effectively increase the survival rate of patients. There are three types of dermoscopy images, malignant melanoma, benign nevis and seborrheic keratosis, so using dermoscopy images to classify melanoma is an indispensable task in diagnosis. However, early melanoma classification works can only use the low-level information of images, so the melanoma cannot be classified efficiently; and the recent deep learning methods mainly depend on a single network, although it can extract high-level features, the poor scale and type of the features limited the results of the classification. Therefore, we need an automatic classification method for melanoma, which can make full use of the rich and deep feature information of images for classification. In this study, we propose an ensemble method that can integrate different types of classification networks for melanoma classification. Specifically, we first use U-net to segment the lesion area of images to generate a lesion mask, thus resize images to focus on the lesion; then, we use five excellent classification models to classify dermoscopy images, and adding squeeze-excitation block (SE block) to models to emphasize the informative features; finally we use our proposed new ensemble network to integrate five different classification results. The experimental results prove the validity of our results. We test our method on the ISIC $2017$ challenge...


An Overview of Melanoma Detection in Dermoscopy Images Using Image Processing and Machine Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The incidence of malignant melanoma continues to increase worldwide. This cancer can strike at any age; it is one of the leading causes of loss of life in young persons. Since this cancer is visible on the skin, it is potentially detectable at a very early stage when it is curable. New developments have converged to make fully automatic early melanoma detection a real possibility. First, the advent of dermoscopy has enabled a dramatic boost in clinical diagnostic ability to the point that melanoma can be detected in the clinic at the very earliest stages. The global adoption of this technology has allowed accumulation of large collections of dermoscopy images of melanomas and benign lesions validated by histopathology. The development of advanced technologies in the areas of image processing and machine learning have given us the ability to allow distinction of malignant melanoma from the many benign mimics that require no biopsy. These new technologies should allow not only earlier detection of melanoma, but also reduction of the large number of needless and costly biopsy procedures. Although some of the new systems reported for these technologies have shown promise in preliminary trials, widespread implementation must await further technical progress in accuracy and reproducibility. In this paper, we provide an overview of computerized detection of melanoma in dermoscopy images. First, we discuss the various aspects of lesion segmentation. Then, we provide a brief overview of clinical feature segmentation. Finally, we discuss the classification stage where machine learning algorithms are applied to the attributes generated from the segmented features to predict the existence of melanoma.


Dermatologist Level Dermoscopy Skin Cancer Classification Using Different Deep Learning Convolutional Neural Networks Algorithms

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper, the effectiveness and capability of convolutional neural networks have been studied in the classification of 8 skin diseases. Different pre-trained state-of-the-art architectures (DenseNet 201, ResNet 152, Inception v3, InceptionResNet v2) were used and applied on 10135 dermoscopy skin images in total (HAM10000: 10015, PH2: 120). The utilized dataset includes 8 diagnostic categories - melanoma, melanocytic nevi, basal cell carcinoma, benign keratosis, actinic keratosis and intraepithelial carcinoma, dermatofibroma, vascular lesions, and atypical nevi. The aim is to compare the ability of deep learning with the performance of highly trained dermatologists. Overall, the mean results show that all deep learning models outperformed dermatologists (at least 11%). The best ROC AUC values for melanoma and basal cell carcinoma are 94.40% (ResNet 152) and 99.30% (DenseNet 201) versus 82.26% and 88.82% of dermatologists, respectively. Also, DenseNet 201 had the highest macro and micro averaged AUC values for overall classification (98.16%, 98.79%, respectively).


Bulk Production Augmentation Towards Explainable Melanoma Diagnosis

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Although highly accurate automated diagnostic techniques for melanoma have been reported, the realization of a system capable of providing diagnostic evidence based on medical indices remains an open issue because of difficulties in obtaining reliable training data. In this paper, we propose bulk production augmentation (BPA) to generate high-quality, diverse pseudo-skin tumor images with the desired structural malignant features for additional training images from a limited number of labeled images. The proposed BPA acts as an effective data augmentation in constructing the feature detector for the atypical pigment network (APN), which is a key structure in melanoma diagnosis. Experiments show that training with images generated by our BPA largely boosts the APN detection performance by 20.0 percentage points in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, which is 11.5 to 13.7 points higher than that of conventional CycleGAN-based augmentations in AUC.


Automated Skin Lesion Classification Using Ensemble of Deep Neural Networks in ISIC 2018: Skin Lesion Analysis Towards Melanoma Detection Challenge

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we studied extensively on different deep learning based methods to detect melanoma and skin lesion cancers. Melanoma, a form of malignant skin cancer is very threatening to health. Proper diagnosis of melanoma at an earlier stage is crucial for the success rate of complete cure. Dermoscopic images with Benign and malignant forms of skin cancer can be analyzed by computer vision system to streamline the process of skin cancer detection. In this study, we experimented with various neural networks which employ recent deep learning based models like PNASNet-5-Large, InceptionResNetV2, SENet154, InceptionV4. Dermoscopic images are properly processed and augmented before feeding them into the network. We tested our methods on International Skin Imaging Collaboration (ISIC) 2018 challenge dataset. Our system has achieved best validation score of 0.76 for PNASNet-5-Large model. Further improvement and optimization of the proposed methods with a bigger training dataset and carefully chosen hyper-parameter could improve the performances. The code available for download at https://github.com/miltonbd/ISIC_2018_classification