The presence of cancer of the lymphatic system is often determined by analyzing samples from the blood or bone marrow. A team led by Prof. Dr. Peter Krawitz from the University of Bonn had already shown in 2020 that artificial intelligence can help with the diagnosis of such lymphomas and leukemias. The technology fully utilizes the potential of all measurement values and increases the speed as well as the objectivity of the analyses compared to established processes. The method has now been further developed so that even smaller laboratories can benefit from this freely accessible machine learning method – an important step towards clinical practice. The study has now been published in the journal "Patterns".
Lymph nodes become swollen, there is weight loss and fatigue, as well as fevers and infections - these are typical symptoms of malignant B-cell lymphomas and related leukemias. If such a cancer of the lymphatic system is suspected, the physician takes a blood or bone marrow sample and sends it to specialized laboratories. This is where flow cytometry comes in. Flow cytometry is a method in which the blood cells flow past measurement sensors at high speed. The properties of the cells can be detected depending on their shape, structure or coloring.
Many patients with rare diseases go through lengthy trials and tribulations until they are correctly diagnosed. "This results in a loss of valuable time that is actually needed for early therapy in order to avert progressive damage," explains Prof. Dr. med. Together with an international team of researchers, he demonstrates how artificial intelligence can be used to make comparatively quick and reliable diagnoses in facial analysis. The researchers used data of 679 patients with 105 different diseases caused by the change in a single gene. These include, for example, mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), which leads to bone deformation, learning difficulties and stunted growth.
An international team of scientists are using data on genetic material, cell surface texture and typical facial features derived by artificial intelligence methods to simulate disease models for deficiencies in the molecule glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, which is known to cause various diseases.
ABSTRACT Typical state of the art flow cytometry data samples consists of measures of more than 100.000 cells in 10 or more features. AI systems are able to diagnose such data with almost the same accuracy as human experts. However, there is one central challenge in such systems: their decisions have far-reaching consequences for the health and life of people, and therefore, the decisions of AI systems need to be understandable and justifiable by humans. In this work, we present a novel explainable AI method, called ALPODS, which is able to classify (diagnose) cases based on clusters, i.e., subpopulations, in the high-dimensional data. ALPODS is able to explain its decisions in a form that is understandable for human experts. For the identified subpopulations, fuzzy reasoning rules expressed in the typical language of domain experts are generated. A visualization method based on these rules allows human experts to understand the reasoning used by the AI system. A comparison to a selection of state of the art explainable AI systems shows that ALPODS operates efficiently on known benchmark data and also on everyday routine case data. KEYWORDS: Explainable AI, Expert System, Symbolic System, Biomedical Data 1. INTRODUCTION State of the art machine learning (ML) artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms are effectively and efficiently able to diagnose (classify) high-dimensional data sets in modern medicine, e.g., for multiparameter flow cytometry data [Hu et al., 2019; Zhao et al., 2020]. These are systems that, after a training (learning) phase using learning data, perform well on data that are not part of the training data, i.e., the test data.