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Deep Learning in Medical Image Registration: A Review

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper presents a review of deep learning (DL) based medical image registration methods. We summarized the latest developments and applications of DL-based registration methods in the medical field. These methods were classified into seven categories according to their methods, functions and popularity. A detailed review of each category was presented, highlighting important contributions and identifying specific challenges. A short assessment was presented following the detailed review of each category to summarize its achievements and future potentials. We provided a comprehensive comparison among DL-based methods for lung and brain deformable registration using benchmark datasets. Lastly, we analyzed the statistics of all the cited works from various aspects, revealing the popularity and future trend of development in medical image registration using deep learning.


Weakly-Supervised Convolutional Neural Networks for Multimodal Image Registration

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

One of the fundamental challenges in supervised learning for multimodal image registration is the lack of ground-truth for voxel-level spatial correspondence. This work describes a method to infer voxel-level transformation from higher-level correspondence information contained in anatomical labels. We argue that such labels are more reliable and practical to obtain for reference sets of image pairs than voxel-level correspondence. Typical anatomical labels of interest may include solid organs, vessels, ducts, structure boundaries and other subject-specific ad hoc landmarks. The proposed end-to-end convolutional neural network approach aims to predict displacement fields to align multiple labelled corresponding structures for individual image pairs during the training, while only unlabelled image pairs are used as the network input for inference. We highlight the versatility of the proposed strategy, for training, utilising diverse types of anatomical labels, which need not to be identifiable over all training image pairs. At inference, the resulting 3D deformable image registration algorithm runs in real-time and is fully-automated without requiring any anatomical labels or initialisation. Several network architecture variants are compared for registering T2-weighted magnetic resonance images and 3D transrectal ultrasound images from prostate cancer patients. A median target registration error of 3.6 mm on landmark centroids and a median Dice of 0.87 on prostate glands are achieved from cross-validation experiments, in which 108 pairs of multimodal images from 76 patients were tested with high-quality anatomical labels.


CycleMorph: Cycle Consistent Unsupervised Deformable Image Registration

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Image registration is a fundamental task in medical image analysis. Recently, deep learning based image registration methods have been extensively investigated due to their excellent performance despite the ultra-fast computational time. However, the existing deep learning methods still have limitation in the preservation of original topology during the deformation with registration vector fields. To address this issues, here we present a cycle-consistent deformable image registration. The cycle consistency enhances image registration performance by providing an implicit regularization to preserve topology during the deformation. The proposed method is so flexible that can be applied for both 2D and 3D registration problems for various applications, and can be easily extended to multi-scale implementation to deal with the memory issues in large volume registration. Experimental results on various datasets from medical and non-medical applications demonstrate that the proposed method provides effective and accurate registration on diverse image pairs within a few seconds. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations on deformation fields also verify the effectiveness of the cycle consistency of the proposed method.


AI is reinventing the way we invent

#artificialintelligence

Amgen's drug discovery group is a few blocks beyond that. Until recently, Barzilay, one of the world's leading researchers in artificial intelligence, hadn't given much thought to these nearby buildings full of chemists and biologists. But as AI and machine learning began to perform ever more impressive feats in image recognition and language comprehension, she began to wonder: could it also transform the task of finding new drugs? The problem is that human researchers can explore only a tiny slice of what is possible. It's estimated that there are as many as 1060 potentially drug-like molecules--more than the number of atoms in the solar system. But traversing seemingly unlimited possibilities is what machine learning is good at. Trained on large databases of existing molecules and their properties, the programs can explore all possible related molecules.


An Empirical Analysis of Backward Compatibility in Machine Learning Systems

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In many applications of machine learning (ML), updates are performed with the goal of enhancing model performance. However, current practices for updating models rely solely on isolated, aggregate performance analyses, overlooking important dependencies, expectations, and needs in real-world deployments. We consider how updates, intended to improve ML models, can introduce new errors that can significantly affect downstream systems and users. For example, updates in models used in cloud-based classification services, such as image recognition, can cause unexpected erroneous behavior in systems that make calls to the services. Prior work has shown the importance of "backward compatibility" for maintaining human trust. We study challenges with backward compatibility across different ML architectures and datasets, focusing on common settings including data shifts with structured noise and ML employed in inferential pipelines. Our results show that (i) compatibility issues arise even without data shift due to optimization stochasticity, (ii) training on large-scale noisy datasets often results in significant decreases in backward compatibility even when model accuracy increases, and (iii) distributions of incompatible points align with noise bias, motivating the need for compatibility aware de-noising and robustness methods.