Gene therapy that increases the levels of an enzyme called CyP40 can reduce toxic tangles of tau protein in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (right panel versus control condition in left panel). A human protein -- called CyP40 -- can untangle the neurodegenerative clumps that characterize Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, scientists reported Tuesday in the journal PLoS Biology. The findings may guide new therapeutic avenues for these conditions. "We were surprised that CyP40 could disaggregate the tangles," Laura Blair, a biologist at the University of South Florida and senior author of the study, said because very few human proteins can take these clumps and undo them. In Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, certain proteins in the brain stick together in toxic, knotted clumps that cause cognitive decline.
A test for people who lose their sense of smell in the early stages of Alzheimer's could diagnose the condition before it strikes. Scientists have developed a simple scan which may be able to pinpoint dementia before memory loss even begins. The key is in someone's sense of smell, which starts to deteriorate in many neurological conditions, from Down's syndrome and schizophrenia to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. It is why there is a so-called'peanut butter test' for people with Alzheimer's who are less able to sniff out the spread from a distance. Scientists have developed a simple scan which may be able to pinpoint dementia before memory loss even begins.
WASHINGTON – Scientists have found a new clue that Parkinson's disease may get its start not in the brain but in the gut -- maybe in the appendix. People who had their appendix removed early in life had a lower risk of getting the tremor-inducing brain disease decades later, researchers reported Wednesday. A peek at surgically removed appendix tissue shows this tiny organ, often considered useless, seems to be a storage depot for an abnormal protein -- one that, if it somehow makes its way into the brain, becomes a hallmark of Parkinson's. The big surprise, according to studies published in the journal Science Translational Medicine: Lots of people may harbor clumps of that worrisome protein in their appendix -- young and old, people with healthy brains and those with Parkinson's. But don't look for a surgeon just yet.
The body's decline as we get older or illnesses such as Alzheimer's caused by ageing could be slowed down or even stopped after a breakthrough by scientists. Researchers at Nottingham University discovered a protein found within the powerhouse of a cell has a crucial role in the ageing process. The discovery could lead to new drugs to slow the debilitating effects of ageing on our bodies or halt the progression of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. As we age, our body's tissues and functions begin to diminish. Loss of muscle mass begins around 50 and becomes more pronounced in our 60s, leading to a reduction in strength and greater frailty.