When she entered medicine in the mid-1980s, Masayo Takahashi chose ophthalmology as her specialty, she said, because she wanted to have a family and thought the discipline would spare her from sudden work calls in the middle of the night, helping her best balance work and life. Three decades later, the 56-year-old mother of two grown-up daughters is at the forefront of the nation's -- even the world's -- research into regenerative medicine. In September 2014, she offered a ray of hope to scores of patients with a severe eye condition when her team at the Riken institute's Center for Developmental Biology in Kobe succeeded in a world-first transplanting of cells made from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into a human body. The operation, conducted as a clinical study, involved creating a retinal sheet from iPS cells, which were developed by Shinya Yamanaka, a researcher at Kyoto University. His 2006 discovery of iPS cells, which can grow into any kind of tissue in the body, won him a Nobel Prize in 2012.
When it comes to food, it turns out you can sue over just about anything these days. A California woman is suing the makers of Jelly Belly jelly beans, claiming she was tricked into believing one of the company's candy products was free of sugar. The plaintiff, Jessica Gomez of San Bernadino County, first brought the case against the candy company earlier this year, blaming "fancy phrasing" for her confusion over the ingredients, according to Legal News Line. Gomez purchased Jelly Belly's Sport Beans, a product marketed as an exercise supplement containing carbohydrates, electrolytes and vitamins, which lists "evaporated cane juice" on the label instead of citing sugar as an ingredient. In the class action suit, Gomez claims the wording on the label is in violation of state's Consumer Legal Remedies Act, Unfair Business Practices Law and False Advertising Law and is designed to intentionally deceive the health-conscious consumers being targeted by Sport Beans, Forbes reports.
SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped, positive sense, single stranded RNA virus, meaning that the virus can be directly translated into proteins in the host cell, and is susceptible to lysis by detergents such as soap. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the betacoronavirus genera, and one third of its genome encodes four main structural proteins: spike glycoprotein (S), envelope (E), nucleocapsid (N), and membrane (M) proteins, with the rest of the genome being translated into non-structural proteins that form the replicase transcriptase complex (RTC) for viral replications. To date, commercially available reagents are exclusively for the structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2, which we'll describe in more detail in each section below.