The recent advances in computer speed and algorithms for probabilistic inference have led to a resurgence of work on planning under uncertainty. The aim is to design AI planners for environments where there might be incomplete or faulty information, where actions might not always have the same results, and where there might be trade-offs between the different possible outcomes of a plan. Addressing uncertainty in AI, planning algorithms will greatly increase the range of potential applications, but there is plenty of work to be done before we see practical decision-theoretic planning systems. This article outlines some of the challenges that need to be overcome and surveys some of the recent work in the area.
Incremental graph search algorithms, such as D* Lite, reuse previous search efforts to speed up subsequent similar path planning tasks. These algorithms have demonstrated their efficiency in comparison with search from scratch, and have been leveraged in many applications such as navigation in unknown terrain. On the other hand, path planning typically involves optimizing multiple conflicting objectives simultaneously, such as travel risk, arrival time, etc. Multi-objective path planning is challenging as the number of "Pareto-optimal" solutions can grow exponentially with respect to the size of the graph, which makes it computationally burdensome to plan from scratch each time when similar planning tasks needs to be solved. This article presents a new multi-objective incremental search algorithm called Multi-Objective Path-Based D* Lite (MOPBD*) which reuses previous search efforts to speed up subsequent planning tasks while optimizing multiple objectives. Numerical results show that MOPBD* is more efficient than search from scratch and runs an order of magnitude faster than existing incremental method for multi-objective path planning.
Non-linear continuous change is common in real-world problems, especially those that model physical systems. We present an algorithm which builds upon existent temporal planning techniques based on linear programming to approximate non-linear continuous monotonic functions. These are integrated through a semantic attachment mechanism, allowing external libraries or functions that are difficult to model in native PDDL to be evaluated during the planning process. A new planning system implementing this algorithm was developed and evaluated. Results show that the addition of this algorithm to the planning process can enable it to solve a broader set of planning problems.
Route planning for multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is a series of translation and rotational steps from a given start location to the destination goal location. The goal of the route planning problem is to determine the most optimal route avoiding any collisions with the obstacles present in the environment. Route planning is an NP-hard optimization problem. In this paper, a newly proposed Salp Swarm Algorithm (SSA) is used, and its performance is compared with deterministic and other Nature-Inspired Algorithms (NIAs). The results illustrate that SSA outperforms all the other meta-heuristic algorithms in route planning for multiple UAVs in a 3D environment.
Planning algorithms are used in computational systems to direct autonomous behavior. In a canonical application, for example, planning for autonomous vehicles is used to automate the static or continuous planning towards performance, resource management, or functional goals (e.g., arriving at the destination, managing fuel fuel consumption). Existing planning algorithms assume non-adversarial settings; a least-cost plan is developed based on available environmental information (i.e., the input instance). Yet, it is unclear how such algorithms will perform in the face of adversaries attempting to thwart the planner. In this paper, we explore the security of planning algorithms used in cyber- and cyber-physical systems.