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Artificial intelligence may help reduce gadolinium dose in MRI

#artificialintelligence

CHICAGO - Researchers are using artificial intelligence to reduce the dose of a contrast agent that may be left behind in the body after MRI exams, according to a study being presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). Gadolinium is a heavy metal used in contrast material that enhances images on MRI. Recent studies have found that trace amounts of the metal remain in the bodies of people who have undergone exams with certain types of gadolinium. The effects of this deposition are not known, but radiologists are working proactively to optimize patient safety while preserving the important information that gadolinium-enhanced MRI scans provide. "There is concrete evidence that gadolinium deposits in the brain and body," said study lead author Enhao Gong, Ph.D., researcher at Stanford University in Stanford, Calif.


Community-preserving Graph Convolutions for Structural and Functional Joint Embedding of Brain Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

--Brain networks have received considerable attention given the critical significance for understanding human brain organization, for investigating neurological disorders and for clinical diagnostic applications. Most existing works in brain network analysis focus on either structural or functional connectivity, which cannot leverage the complementary information from each other . Although multi-view learning methods have been proposed to learn from both networks (or views), these methods aim to reach a consensus among multiple views, and thus distinct intrinsic properties of each view may be ignored. How to jointly learn representations from structural and functional brain networks while preserving their inherent properties is a critical problem. In this paper, we propose a framework of Siamese community-preserving graph convolutional network (SCP-GCN) to learn the structural and functional joint embedding of brain networks. Specifically, we use graph convolutions to learn the structural and functional joint embedding, where the graph structure is defined with structural connectivity and node features are from the functional connectivity. Moreover, we propose to preserve the community structure of brain networks in the graph convolutions by considering the intra-community and inter-community properties in the learning process. Furthermore, we use Siamese architecture which models the pairwise similarity learning to guide the learning process. T o evaluate the proposed approach, we conduct extensive experiments on two real brain network datasets. The experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed approach in structural and functional joint embedding for neurological disorder analysis, indicating its promising value for clinical applications. This work was done when the author was at the University of Illinois at Chicago.


Patient Similarity Analysis with Longitudinal Health Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Healthcare professionals have long envisioned using the enormous processing powers of computers to discover new facts and medical knowledge locked inside electronic health records. These vast medical archives contain time-resolved information about medical visits, tests and procedures, as well as outcomes, which together form individual patient journeys. By assessing the similarities among these journeys, it is possible to uncover clusters of common disease trajectories with shared health outcomes. The assignment of patient journeys to specific clusters may in turn serve as the basis for personalized outcome prediction and treatment selection. This procedure is a non-trivial computational problem, as it requires the comparison of patient data with multi-dimensional and multi-modal features that are captured at different times and resolutions. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the tools and methods that are used in patient similarity analysis with longitudinal data and discuss its potential for improving clinical decision making.


Generative Adversarial Networks Applied to Observational Health Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Having been collected for its primary purpose in patient care, Observational Health Data (OHD) can further benefit patient well-being by sustaining the development of health informatics. However, the potential for secondary usage of OHD continues to be hampered by the fiercely private nature of patient-related data. Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) have Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) have recently emerged as a groundbreaking approach to efficiently learn generative models that produce realistic Synthetic Data (SD). However, the application of GAN to OHD seems to have been lagging in comparison to other fields. We conducted a review of GAN algorithms for OHD in the published literature, and report our findings here.


DeepHealth: Deep Learning for Health Informatics

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning and deep learning have provided us with an exploration of a whole new research era. As more data and better computational power become available, they have been implemented in various fields. The demand for artificial intelligence in the field of health informatics is also increasing and we can expect to see the potential benefits of artificial intelligence applications in healthcare. Deep learning can help clinicians diagnose disease, identify cancer sites, identify drug effects for each patient, understand the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes, explore new phenotypes, and predict infectious disease outbreaks with high accuracy. In contrast to traditional models, its approach does not require domain-specific data pre-process, and it is expected that it will ultimately change human life a lot in the future. Despite its notable advantages, there are some challenges on data (high dimensionality, heterogeneity, time dependency, sparsity, irregularity, lack of label) and model (reliability, interpretability, feasibility, security, scalability) for practical use. This article presents a comprehensive review of research applying deep learning in health informatics with a focus on the last five years in the fields of medical imaging, electronic health records, genomics, sensing, and online communication health, as well as challenges and promising directions for future research. We highlight ongoing popular approaches' research and identify several challenges in building deep learning models.