Developed back in the 50s by Rosenblatt and colleagues, this extremely simple algorithm can be viewed as the foundation for some of the most successful classifiers today, including suport vector machines and logistic regression, solved using stochastic gradient descent. The convergence proof for the Perceptron algorithm is one of the most elegant pieces of math I've seen in ML. Most useful: Boosting, especially boosted decision trees. This intuitive approach allows you to build highly accurate ML models, by combining many simple ones. Boosting is one of the most practical methods in ML, it's widely used in industry, can handle a wide variety of data types, and can be implemented at scale.
We introduce a Deep Boltzmann Machine model suitable for modeling and extracting latent semantic representations from a large unstructured collection of documents. We overcome the apparent difficulty of training a DBM with judicious parameter tying. This parameter tying enables an efficient pretraining algorithm and a state initialization scheme that aids inference. The model can be trained just as efficiently as a standard Restricted Boltzmann Machine. Our experiments show that the model assigns better log probability to unseen data than the Replicated Softmax model. Features extracted from our model outperform LDA, Replicated Softmax, and DocNADE models on document retrieval and document classification tasks.
Contrastive Divergence (CD) and Persistent Contrastive Divergence (PCD) are popular methods for training the weights of Restricted Boltzmann Machines. However, both methods use an approximate method for sampling from the model distribution. As a side effect, these approximations yield significantly different biases and variances for stochastic gradient estimates of individual data points. It is well known that CD yields a biased gradient estimate. In this paper we however show empirically that CD has a lower stochastic gradient estimate variance than exact sampling, while the mean of subsequent PCD estimates has a higher variance than exact sampling. The results give one explanation to the finding that CD can be used with smaller minibatches or higher learning rates than PCD.
This paper presents a novel approach to speaker subspace modelling based on Gaussian-Binary Restricted Boltzmann Machines (GRBM). The proposed model is based on the idea of shared factors as in the Probabilistic Linear Discriminant Analysis (PLDA). GRBM hidden layer is divided into speaker and channel factors, herein the speaker factor is shared over all vectors of the speaker. Then Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimation (MLE) for proposed model is introduced. Various new scoring techniques for speaker verification using GRBM are proposed. The results for NIST i-vector Challenge 2014 dataset are presented.