In this paper, a novel racing environment for OpenAI Gym is introduced. This environment operates with continuous action- and state-spaces and requires agents to learn to control the acceleration and steering of a car while navigating a randomly generated racetrack. Different versions of two actor-critic learning algorithms are tested on this environment: Sampled Policy Gradient (SPG) and Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO). An extension of SPG is introduced that aims to improve learning performance by weighting action samples during the policy update step. The effect of using experience replay (ER) is also investigated. To this end, a modification to PPO is introduced that allows for training using old action samples by optimizing the actor in log space. Finally, a new technique for performing ER is tested that aims to improve learning speed without sacrificing performance by splitting the training into two parts, whereby networks are first trained using state transitions from the replay buffer, and then using only recent experiences. The results indicate that experience replay is not beneficial to PPO in continuous action spaces. The training of SPG seems to be more stable when actions are weighted. All versions of SPG outperform PPO when ER is used. The ER trick is effective at improving training speed on a computationally less intensive version of SPG.
Deep reinforcement learning enables algorithms to learn complex behavior, deal with continuous action spaces and find good strategies in environments with high dimensional state spaces. With deep reinforcement learning being an active area of research and many concurrent inventions, we decided to focus on a relatively simple robotic task to evaluate a set of ideas that might help to solve recent reinforcement learning problems. We test a newly created combination of two commonly used reinforcement learning methods, whether it is able to learn more effectively than a baseline. We also compare different ideas to preprocess information before it is fed to the reinforcement learning algorithm. The goal of this strategy is to reduce training time and eventually help the algorithm to converge. The concluding evaluation proves the general applicability of the described concepts by testing them using a simulated environment. These concepts might be reused for future experiments.
Both generative adversarial networks (GAN) in unsupervised learning and actor-critic methods in reinforcement learning (RL) have gained a reputation for being difficult to optimize. Practitioners in both fields have amassed a large number of strategies to mitigate these instabilities and improve training. Here we show that GANs can be viewed as actor-critic methods in an environment where the actor cannot affect the reward. We review the strategies for stabilizing training for each class of models, both those that generalize between the two and those that are particular to that model. We also review a number of extensions to GANs and RL algorithms with even more complicated information flow. We hope that by highlighting this formal connection we will encourage both GAN and RL communities to develop general, scalable, and stable algorithms for multilevel optimization with deep networks, and to draw inspiration across communities.
This paper presents a deep learning framework that is capable of solving partially observable locomotion tasks based on our novel Recurrent Deterministic Policy Gradient (RDPG). Three major improvements are applied in our RDPG based learning framework: asynchronized backup of interpolated temporal difference, initialisation of hidden state using past trajectory scanning, and injection of external experiences learned by other agents. The proposed learning framework was implemented to solve the Bipedal-Walker challenge in OpenAI's gym simulation environment where only partial state information is available. Our simulation study shows that the autonomous behaviors generated by the RDPG agent are highly adaptive to a variety of obstacles and enables the agent to traverse rugged terrains effectively.
Model-free deep reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms have been demonstrated on a range of challenging decision making and control tasks. However, these methods typically suffer from two major challenges: very high sample complexity and brittle convergence properties, which necessitate meticulous hyperparameter tuning. Both of these challenges severely limit the applicability of such methods to complex, real-world domains. In this paper, we propose soft actor-critic, an off-policy actor-critic deep RL algorithm based on the maximum entropy reinforcement learning framework. In this framework, the actor aims to maximize expected reward while also maximizing entropy - that is, succeed at the task while acting as randomly as possible. Prior deep RL methods based on this framework have been formulated as Q-learning methods. By combining off-policy updates with a stable stochastic actor-critic formulation, our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on a range of continuous control benchmark tasks, outperforming prior on-policy and off-policy methods. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, in contrast to other off-policy algorithms, our approach is very stable, achieving very similar performance across different random seeds.