A service mining framework is proposed that enables discovering interesting relationships in Internet of Things services bottom-up. The service relationships are modeled based on spatial-temporal aspects, environment, people, and operation. An ontology-based service model is proposed to describe services. We present a set of metrics to evaluate the interestingness of discovered service relationships. Analytical and simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed evaluation measures.
Peltonen, Ella, Bennis, Mehdi, Capobianco, Michele, Debbah, Merouane, Ding, Aaron, Gil-Castiñeira, Felipe, Jurmu, Marko, Karvonen, Teemu, Kelanti, Markus, Kliks, Adrian, Leppänen, Teemu, Lovén, Lauri, Mikkonen, Tommi, Rao, Ashwin, Samarakoon, Sumudu, Seppänen, Kari, Sroka, Paweł, Tarkoma, Sasu, Yang, Tingting
In this white paper we provide a vision for 6G Edge Intelligence. Moving towards 5G and beyond the future 6G networks, intelligent solutions utilizing data-driven machine learning and artificial intelligence become crucial for several real-world applications including but not limited to, more efficient manufacturing, novel personal smart device environments and experiences, urban computing and autonomous traffic settings. We present edge computing along with other 6G enablers as a key component to establish the future 2030 intelligent Internet technologies as shown in this series of 6G White Papers. In this white paper, we focus in the domains of edge computing infrastructure and platforms, data and edge network management, software development for edge, and real-time and distributed training of ML/AI algorithms, along with security, privacy, pricing, and end-user aspects. We discuss the key enablers and challenges and identify the key research questions for the development of the Intelligent Edge services. As a main outcome of this white paper, we envision a transition from Internet of Things to Intelligent Internet of Intelligent Things and provide a roadmap for development of 6G Intelligent Edge.
The traditional production paradigm of large batch production does not offer flexibility towards satisfying the requirements of individual customers. A new generation of smart factories is expected to support new multi-variety and small-batch customized production modes. For that, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is enabling higher value-added manufacturing by accelerating the integration of manufacturing and information communication technologies, including computing, communication, and control. The characteristics of a customized smart factory are to include self-perception, operations optimization, dynamic reconfiguration, and intelligent decision-making. The AI technologies will allow manufacturing systems to perceive the environment, adapt to the external needs, and extract the process knowledge, including business models, such as intelligent production, networked collaboration, and extended service models. This paper focuses on the implementation of AI in customized manufacturing (CM). The architecture of an AI-driven customized smart factory is presented. Details of intelligent manufacturing devices, intelligent information interaction, and construction of a flexible manufacturing line are showcased. The state-of-the-art AI technologies of potential use in CM, i.e., machine learning, multi-agent systems, Internet of Things, big data, and cloud-edge computing are surveyed. The AI-enabled technologies in a customized smart factory are validated with a case study of customized packaging. The experimental results have demonstrated that the AI-assisted CM offers the possibility of higher production flexibility and efficiency. Challenges and solutions related to AI in CM are also discussed.
There is a growing trend towards the convergence of cyber-physical systems (CPS) and social computing, which will lead to the emergence of smart communities composed of various objects (including both human individuals and physical things) that interact and cooperate with each other. These smart communities promise to enable a number of innovative applications and services that will improve the quality of life. This position paper addresses some opportunities and challenges of building smart communities characterized by cyber-physical and social intelligence.
Recommendation represents a vital stage in developing and promoting the benefits of the Internet of Things (IoT). Traditional recommender systems fail to exploit ever-growing, dynamic, and heterogeneous IoT data. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art recommender systems, as well as related techniques and application in the vibrant field of IoT. We discuss several limitations of applying recommendation systems to IoT and propose a reference framework for comparing existing studies to guide future research and practices.